Bibliografía sobre la experimentación animal

Experimentación animal con objetivos ecologistas purposes

Brent, R. L. (1986) “Evaluating the alleged teratogenicity of environmental agents”, in Brent, R.L.; Beckman, D. A. (eds.) Clinics in Perinatology, vol. 13, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, pp. 609-613.

Brent, R. L. (2004) “Utilization of animal studies to determine the effects and human risks of environmental toxicants (drugs, chemicals, and physical agents)”, Pediatrics, 113, 4 suppl., pp. 984-995.

Brown, V. J. (2003) “REACHing for chemical safety”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, pp. A 766-A 769 [referencia: 3 de enero de 2017].

Cardello, N. “Analysis of the HPV challenge: Industry violations and EPA negligence”, pcrm.org [referencia: 22 de febrero de 2014].

Combes, R.; Barratt, M. & Balls, M. (2002) “An overall strategy for the testing of chemicals for human hazard and risk assessment under the EU REACH system”, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 31, pp. 7-19.

Dayeh, V. R.; Bols, N. C.; Tanneberger, K.; Schirmer, K. & Lee, L. E. (2013) “The use of fish‐derived cell lines for investigation of environmental contaminants: An update following OECD’s fish toxicity testing framework no. 171”, Current Protocols in Toxicology, 1.5.

Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A. & Eppard, M. B. (2015) “An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon”, Scientific Reports, 5 [referencia: 31 de enero de 2015].

Dix, D. J.; Houck, K. A.; Martin, M. T.; Richard, A. M.; Setzer, R. W. & Kavlock, R. J. (2007) “The ToxCast program for prioritizing toxicity testing of environmental chemicals”, Toxicological Sciences, 95, pp. 5-12 [referencia: 6 de marzo de 2017].

Drobne, D. (1997) “Terrestrial isopods—a good choice for toxicity testing of pollutants in the terrestrial environment”, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16, pp. 1159-1164.

EPA – US Environmental Protection Agency (2004) Status and future directions of the High Production Volume Challenge Program, Washington, D. C.: Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, p. 1.

EPA – US Environmental Protection Agency (2012) “Robust summaries and test plans”, High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge [referencia: 27 de mayo de 2014].

Fan, A.; Howd, R. & Davis, B. (1995) “Risk assessment of environmental chemicals”, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 35, pp. 341-368.

Fano, A. (1997) Lethal laws: Animal testing, human health, and environmental policy, London: Zed.

Harrison, P. (2006) Chemicals in the environment: Assessing and managing risk, Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Dayeh, V. R.; Bols, N. C.; Tanneberger, K.; Schirmer, K. & Lee, L. E. (2013) “The use of fish‐derived cell lines for investigation of environmental contaminants: An update following OECD’s fish toxicity testing framework no. 171”, Current Protocols in Toxicology, 1.5.

Johnson, W. W. & Finley, M. T. (1980) Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates, Washington, D. C.: United States Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication.

Kelce, W. R.; Monosson, E.; Gamcsik, M. P.; Laws, S. C. & Gray, L. E., Jr. (1994) “Environmental hormone disruptors: Evidence that vinclozolin developmental toxicity is mediated by antiandrogenic metabolites”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 126, pp. 276-285.

The Keystone Center (1996) “Keystone convening report regarding the formation of the endocrine disruptor screening and testing advisory committee”, Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program [referencia: 15 de abril de 2014].

King-Heiden, T. C.; Mehta, V.; Xiong, K. M.; Lanham, K. A.; Antkiewicz, D. S.; Ganser, A.; Heideman, W. & Peterson, R. E. (2012) “Reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxin in fish”, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 354, pp. 121-138 [referencia: 22 de febrero de 2017].

Lagadic, L. & Caquet, T. (1998) “Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: Are they alternatives?”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106, suppl. 2, pp. 593-611 [referencia: 15 de enero de 2017].

Mager, E. M.; Esbaugh, A. J.; Stieglitz, J. D.; Hoenig, R.; Bodinier, C.; Incardona, J. P.; Scholz, N. L.; Benetti, D. D. & Grosell, M. (2014) “Acute embryonic or juvenile exposure to Deepwater horizon crude oil impairs the swimming performance of mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)”, Environmental Science & Technology, 48, pp. 7053-7061.

Nicholson, A.; Sandler, J. & Seidle, T. (2004) “An evaluation of the US High Production Volume (HPV) chemical-testing programme: A study in (ir)relevance, redundancy and retro thinking”, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 32, pp. 335-342.

Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2005) The ethics of research involving animals, London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, sect. 4.52.

Sandler, J. (2001) “Double standards on animal testing”, New Scientist, 2277, 10 February [referencia: 25 de febrero de 2017].

Sandusky, C. B.; Even, M.; Stoick, K. & Sandler, J. (2006) “Strategies to reduce animal testing in US EPA’s HPV Programme”, ALTEX, 23, pp. 117-119.

Sonnenschein, C. & Soto, A. M. (1998) “An updated review of environmental estrogen and androgen mimics and antagonists”, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 65, pp. 143-150.

Soto, A. M.; Sonnenschein, C.; Chung, K. L.; Fernandez, M. F.; Olea, N. & Serrano, F. O. (1995) “The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants”, Environmental health perspectives, 103, suppl. 7, pp. 113-122 [referencia: 6 de marzo de 2017].

U.S. Department of the Interior (1984) Research and development policy / Procedures handbook, Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior.

Walker, C.; Kaiser, K.; Klein, W.; Lagadic, L.; Peakall, D.; Sheffield, S.; Soldan, T. & Yasuno, M. (1998) “13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): Alternative testing methodologies for ecotoxicity”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106, suppl. 2, pp. 441-451 [referencia: 22 de diciembre de 2016].

Warhurst, M. (2004) The REACH files: A policy guide, Brussels: WWF [referencia: 2 de febrero de 2013].

World Wide Fund for Nature (2000) “WWF’s response to the community strategy for endocrine disruptors”, wwf.panda.org [referencia: 2 de abril de 2013].

World Wide Fund for Nature (ca. 2000) “Reach – new chemicals law in Europe”, wwf.panda.org [referencia: 25 de febrero de 2013].

Experimentación de cosméticos y productos del hogar

Abbott, A. (2005) “Animal testing: More than a cosmetic change, Nature, 438, pp. 144-146.

AltTox.org (2008) “How well do animal teratology studies predict human hazard? – setting the bar for alternatives”, alttox.org, 3 September [referencia: 25 de mayo de 2014].

Basketter, D. A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.; Hoffmann, S.; Jaworska, J.; Knudsen, T. B.; Landsiedel, R.; Leist, M.; Locke, P.; Maxwell, G.; McKim, J.; McVey, E. A.; Ouédraogo, G.; Patlewicz, G.; Pelkonen, O.; Roggen, E.; Rovida, C.; Ruhdel, I.; Schwarz, M.; Schepky, A.; Schoeters, G.; Skinner, N.; Trentz, K.; Turner, M.; Vanparys, P.; Yager, J.; Zurlo, J. & Hartung, T. (2012) “A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing”, ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 29, pp. 3-91.

Botham, P. A.; Basketter, D. A.; Maurer, T.; Mueller, D.; Potokar, M. & Bontinck, W. J. (1991) “Skin sensitization—a critical review of predictive test methods in animals and man”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 29, pp. 275-286.

Dholakiya, S. L., & Barile, F. A. (2013) “Alternative methods for ocular toxicology testing: validation, applications and troubleshooting”, Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 9, pp. 699-712.

European Commission (2011) Questions impact assessment: 2013 Implementation Date Marketing Ban Cosmetics Directive: Annex 2, Brussels: European Commission [referencia: 23 de abril de 2017].

European Commission (2017) “Ban on animal testing”, Growth: Internal Market, Industry, Entrepeneurship and SMEs [referencia: 23 de abril de 2017].

Garattini, S. (1985) “Toxic effects of chemicals: Difficulties in extrapolating data from animals to man”, Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 16, pp. 1-29.

Garthoff, B. (2005) “Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207, pp. 388-392.

Hoffmann, S.; Cole, T. & Hartung, T. (2005) “Skin irritation: prevalence, variability, and regulatory classification of existing in vivo data from industrial chemicals”, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 41, pp. 159-166.

LaFollette, H. & Shanks, N. (1997) Brute science: Dilemmas of animal experimentation, New York: Routledge.

Pauwels, M. & Rogiers, V. (2004) “Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: Reality and challenges for the toxicologist”, Toxicology Letters, 151, pp. 7-17.

Pfuhler, S.; Fautz, R.; Ouédraogo, G.; Latil, A.; Kenny, J.; Moore, C. & Barroso, J. (2013) “The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: Project status up-date”, Toxicology in Vitro, 28, pp. 18-23.

Pinto, T. J. A., Ikeda, T. I., Miyamaru, L. L., Santa, M. C., Santos, B. R., & Cruz, A. S. (2009) “Cosmetic safety: Proposal for the replacement of in vivo (Draize) by in vitro test”, The Open Toxicology Journal, 3, pp. 1-7 [referencia: 23 de abril de 2017].

Rice, M. J. (2011) “The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research”, Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 6, p. 12.

Robinson, M. K.; Cohen, C.; de Fraissinette, A.; Ponec, M.; Whittle, E. & Fentem, J. H. (2002) “Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, pp. 573-592.

Roguet, R.; Cohen, C.; Robles, C.; Courtellemont, P.; Tolle, M.; Guillot, J. P. & Pouradier Duteil, X. (1998) “An interlaboratory study of the reproducibility and relevance of Episkin, a reconstructed human epidermis, in the assessment of cosmetics irritancy”, Toxicology in Vitro, 12, pp. 295-304.

Speit, G. (2009) “How to assess the mutagenic potential of cosmetic products without animal tests?”, Mutation Research, 678, pp. 108-112.

Walum, E. (1998) “Acute oral toxicity”, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106, suppl. 2, pp. 497-503 [referencia: 12 de enero de 2012].

Wei, X. & Lei, Z. (2013) “Taking a humane look at cosmetics in Beijing”, China Daily USA, December 20 [referencia: 27 de diciembre de 2013].

Wilhelmus, K. R. (2001) “The Draize eye test”, Survey of Ophthalmology, 45, pp. 493-515.

Yam, J.; Reer, P. J.; Bruce, R. D. (1991) “Comparison of the up-and-down method and the fixed-dose procedure for acute oral toxicity testing”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 29, pp. 259-263.

Ziegler, O. (2013) “Animal testing for cosmetic products”, in Ziegler, O. EU regulatory decision making and the role of the United States, Hessen: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, pp. 177-210.

Zuang, V. & Hartung, T. (2005) “Making validated alternatives available—the strategies and work of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)”, AATEX, 11, pp. 15-26.

Investigación militar en animales

Barnard, N. D. (1986) Animals in military wound research and training, Washington, D. C.: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

Block, E.; Lottenberg, L.; Flint, L.; Jakobsen, J. & Liebnitzky, D. (2002) “Use of a human patient simulator for the advanced trauma life support course”, The American Surgeon, 68, pp. 648-651.

Brook, I.; Elliott, T. B.; Ledney, G. D.; Shoemaker, M. O., & Knudson, G. B. (2004) “Management of postirradiation infection: Lessons learned from animal models”, Military Medicine, 169, pp. 194-197.

Brook, T. V. (2011) “Brain study, animal rights collide: Red flags raised by use of pigs in military blast tests”, USA Today, 28 March [referencia: 11 de diciembre de 2012].

Brown, R. F. R.; Jugg, B. J. A.; Harban, F. M. J.; Ashley, Z.; Kenward, C. E.; Platt, J.; Hill, A.; Rice P. & Watkins, P. E. (2002) “Pathophysiological responses following phosgene exposure in the anaesthetized pig”, Journal of Applied Toxicology, 22, pp. 263-269.

Bruner, R. H. (1984) Pathologic findings in laboratory animals exposed to hydrocarbon fuels of military interest (No. AD-A-166343/4/XAB; NMRI-84-76), Bethesda: Naval Medical Research Inst.

Budkie, M. A. (2012) “Military animal research”, mrmcmed.org [referencia: 6 de julio de 2013].

Butler, F. K.; Holcomb, J. B.; Giebner, S. D.; McSwain, N. E. & Bagian, J. (2007) “Tactical combat casualty care 2007: Evolving concepts and battlefield experience”, Military Medicine, 172, suppl. 11, pp. 1-19.

Chang, F. C. T.; Foster, R. E.; Beers, E. T.; Rickett, D. L. & Filbert, M. G. (1990) “Neurophysiological concomitants of soman-induced respiratory depression in awake, behaving guinea pigs”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 102, pp. 233-250.

Chivers, C. J. (2006) “Tending a fallen Marine, with skill, prayer and fury”, New York Times, November 2 [referencia: 14 de abril de 2013].

Christenson, S. (2008) “Goats die so GIs have a chance at living”, San Antonio Express-News, 3 Aug.

Dacre, J. C., & Goldman, M. (1996) “Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard”, Pharmacological Reviews, 48, pp. 289-326.

Dai, T.; Kharkwal, G. B.; Tanaka, M.; Huang, Y. Y.; de Arce, V. J. B. & Hamblin, M. R. (2011) “Animal models of external traumatic wound infections”, Virulence, 2, pp. 296-315.

Dury, I. (2010) “MoD blew up 119 live pigs in explosive tests”, Daily Mail, 21 May [referencia: 3 de julio de 2013].

Gaarder, C.; Naess, P. A.; Buanes, T. & Pillgram-Larsen, J. (2005) “Advanced surgical trauma care training with a live porcine model”, Injury, 36, pp. 718-724.

Gala, S. G.; Goodman, J. R.; Murphy, M. P. & Balsam, M. J. (2012) “Use of animals by NATO countries in military medical training exercises: An international survey”, Military Medicine, 177, pp. 907-910.

Handrigan, M. (2004) “Choice of fluid influences outcome in prolonged hypotensive resuscitation after hemorrhage in awake rats”, Shock, 23, pp. 337-343.

van Helden, H. P.; van der Wiel, H. J.; de Lange, J.; Busker, R. W.; Melchers, B. P. & Wolthuis, O. L. (1992) “Therapeutic efficacy of HI-6 in soman-poisoned marmoset monkeys”, Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 115, pp. 50-56.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom (2010) “Written answers to questions, 24 Mar. 2010: Column 295W”, publications.parliament.uk [referencia: 23 de octubre de 2011].

Knudsen, P. J. & Darre, E. M. (1996) “Training in wound ballistics: Operation exercise at the Defence Medical Training Centre”, Journal of Trauma, 40, suppl. 3, pp. S6-S9.

Mayorga, M. A. (1994) “Overview of nitrogen dioxide effects on the lung with emphasis on military relevance”, Toxicology, 89, pp. 175-192.

Pandya, A. & Ali, A. (2009) “The role of TraumaMan in the advanced trauma life support course”, Canadian Journal of Surgery, 52, suppl., pp. S3-S19.

Phillips, Y. Y. & Richmond, D. R. (1991) “Primary blast injury and basic research: a brief history”, in Bellamy R. (ed.) Conventional warfare: Ballistic, blast, and burn injuries, Washington, D. C.: Department of the Army, pp. 221-240.

Raveh, L.; Grauer, E.; Grunwald, J.; Cohen, E. & Ashani, Y. (1997) “The stoichiometry of protection against soman and VX toxicity in monkeys pretreated with human butyrylcholinesterase”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 145, pp. 43-53.

Rawstorne, M. (2010) “Is it really right to blow up pigs even if it saves our soldiers’ lives?”, Daily Mail, 28 May [referencia: 11 de diciembre de 2012].

Ritter, E. M. & Bowyer, M. W. (2005) “Simulation for trauma and combat casualty care”, Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, 14, pp. 224-234.

Romano, J. A., Jr.; Lukey, B. J. & Salem, H. (eds.) (2007) Chemical warfare agents: Chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics, London: CRC Press.

Singer, P. (2011 [1975]) Liberación animal, Madrid: Taurus, cap. 2.

Winfield, G. (2007) “Stress relief”, CBRNe World, winter [referencia: 14 de septiembre de 2013].

Experimentación biomédica en animales

Animal Procedures Committee (2003) Review of cost-benefit assessment in the use of animals in research, London: Home Office.

Baird, R. M. & Rosenbaum, S. E. (eds.) (1991) Animal experimentation: The moral issues, New York: Prometheus.

Balls, M. (1994) “Replacement of animal procedures: Alternatives in research, education and testing”, Lab Animal, 28, pp. 193-211.

Bluemel, J.; Korte, S.; Schenck, E. & Weinbauer, G. (eds.) (2015) The nonhuman primate in nonclinical drug development and safety assessment, Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Bockamp, E.; Maringer, M.; Spangeberg, C.; Fees, S.; Fraser, S.; Eshkind, L.; Oesch, F. & Zabel, B. (2002) “Of mice and models: Improved animal models for biomedical research”, Physiological Genomics, 11, pp. 115-132 [referencia: 8 de junio de 2014].

Botham, P. A.; Basketter, D. A.; Maurer, T.; Mueller, D.; Potokar, M. & Bontinck, W. J. (1991) “Skin sensitization—a critical review of predictive test methods in animals and man”, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 29, pp. 275-286.

Caplan, A. L. (1983) “Beastly conduct: Ethical issues in animal experimentation”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 406, pp. 159-169.

Chader, G. G. (2002) “Animal models in research on retinal degenerations: Past progress and future hope”, Vision Research, 42, pp. 393-399 [referencia: 18 de octubre de 2013].

Chow, P. K.; Ng, R. T. & Ogden, B. E. (2008) Using animal models in biomedical research: A primer for the investigator, Singapore: World Scientific.

Clune, A. C. (1996) “Biomedical testing on nonhuman animals: An attempt at a ‘rapprochement’ between utilitarianism and theories of inherent value”, The Monist, 79, pp. 230-246 [referencia: 21 de abril de 2017].

Comisión Europea (2013) Séptimo Informe sobre las estadísticas relativas al número de animales utilizados para experimentación y otros fines científicos en los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea, Bruselas: Comisión Europea [referencia: 2 de septiembre de 2016].

Committee to Update Science, Medicine, and Animals; Institute for Laboratory Animal Research; Division on Earth and Life Studies & National Research Council (2004) Science, medicine, and animals, Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press.

Cothran, H. (ed.) (2002) Animal experimentation: Opposing viewpoints, San Diego: Greenhaven.

Croce, P. (1999) Vivisection or science: An investigation into testing drugs and safeguarding health, 2nd ed., New York: Zed.

DeGrazia, D. (1999) “The ethics of animal research: What are the prospects for agreement?”, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 8, pp. 23-34.

European Science Foundation Policy Briefing (2001) The use of animals in research, 2nd ed., Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.

Frey, R. G. & Paton, W. (1989) “Vivisection, morals and medicine: An exchange”, in Regan, T. & Singer, P. (eds.) Animal rights and human obligations, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, pp. 223-226.

Gavin, S. L. & Herzog, H. A. (1992) “The ethical judgment of animal research”, Ethics & Behavior, 2, pp. 263-286.

Górska, P. (2000) “Principles in laboratory animal research for experimental purposes”, Medical Science Monitor, 6, pp. 171-180 [referencia: 22 de junio de 2013].

Greek, J. S. & Greek, R. (2000) Sacred cows and golden geese: The human cost of experiments on animals, New York: Continuum.

Greek, J. S. & Greek, R. (2003) Specious science: Why experiments on animals harm humans, New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Guillen, J. (ed.) (2013) Laboratory animals: Regulations and recommendations for global collaborative research, San Diego: Academic Press.

Japan. Ministry of Environment (2000 [1973]) “Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals”, Anti-Vivisection Action Network [referencia: 16 de marzo de 2014].

Kirk, A. D. (2003) “Crossing the bridge: Large animal models in translational transplantation research”, Immunological Reviews, 196, pp. 176-196.

LaFollette, H. & Shanks, N. (1997) Brute science: Dilemmas of animal experimentation, New York: Routledge.

Lang, C. M. (2009) “The cost of animal research”, Lab Animal, 38, pp. 335-338. Royal Society (2004) The use of non-human animals in research: A guide for scientists, London: The Royal Society.

Langley, G. (ed.) (1990) Animal experimentation: The consensus changes, London: MacMillan.

Matsuda, Y. (2004) “Recent trends in the number of laboratory animals used in Japan”, ATLA: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 32, suppl. 1A, pp. 299-301.

Monamy, V. (2009 [2000]) Animal experimentation: A guide to the issues, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press. Orlans, F. B. (1993) In the name of science: Issues in responsible animal experimentation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MORI (2002) The use of animals in medical research study, conducted for the Coalition of Medical Progress, March – May 2002, London: MORI.

Ninomiya, H. & Inomata, T. (1998) “Current uses of laboratory animals in Japan and alternative methods in research, testing and education”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 59, pp. 219-25.

Nuffield Council on Bioethics (2005) The ethics of research involving animals, London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, pp. 135-157 [referencia: 25 de junio de 2014].

Nuremberg Military Tribunals (1946-1949) Trials of war criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law no. 10, Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office [referencia: 14 de abril de 2012].

Orlans, F. B. (1998) “History and ethical regulation of animal experimentation: An international perspective”, in Kuhse, H. & Singer, P. A companion to bioethics, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 399-410.

Parlamento Europeo & Consejo de la Unión Europea (2010) “Directiva 2010/63/EU del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo de 22 de septiembre de 2010 relativa a la protección de los animales utilizados para fines científicos”, Diario Oficial de la Unión Europea, 20.10.2010, pp. L. 276/33-79 [referencia: 26 de diciembre de 2015].

Rice, M. J. (2011) “The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: The result is more animal-based research”, Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 6 [referencia: 13 de octubre de 2013].

Rowan, A. N. (1984) Of mice, models and men: A critical evaluation of animal research, Albany: State University of New York Press.

Russell, W. M. S. & Burch, R. L. (1959) The principles of humane experimental technique, London: Methuen.

Shanks, N. & Greek, C. R (2009) Animal models in light of evolution, Boca Raton: Brown Walker.

Sharpe, R. (1994) Science on trial: The human cost of animal experiments, Sheffield: Awareness Books.

Shoji, K. (2008) “Japanese concept and government policy on animal welfare and animal experiments”, Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation, 14, pp. 179-181.

Singer, P. (1996) “Ethics and the limits of scientific freedom”, The Monist, 79, pp. 218-229 [referencia: 21 de abril de 2017].

Swart, J. A. A. (2004) “The wild animal as a research animal”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 17, pp. 181-197.

Takahashi-Omoe, H. & Omoe, K. (2007) “Animal experimentation in Japan: Regulatory processes and application for microbiological studies”, Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 30, pp. 225-246.

Tannenbaum, J. & Rowan, A. N. (1985) “Rethinking the morality of animal research”, Hastings Center Report, 15 (5), pp. 32-43 [referencia: 22 de septiembre de 2012].

United States Department of Agriculture. National Agricultural Library (2008 [1966]) Animal Welfare Act, [Washington, D. C.]: United States Department of Agriculture [accessed on 11 April 2014].

VanDeVeer, D. & Regan, T. (eds.) (1987) Health care ethics: An introduction, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Experimentación con nuevos materiales en animales

Ames, B. N.; McCann, J. & Yamasaki, E. (1975) “Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity yest”, Mutation Research, 31, pp. 347-364.

Animal Procedures Committee (2003) Review of cost-benefit assessment in the use of animals in research, London: Home Office.

Atchley, F. W. (1991) “Genes trees and the origins of inbred strain of mice”, Science, 254, pp. 554-558.

Comisión Europea (2013) Séptimo Informe sobre las estadísticas relativas al número de animales utilizados para experimentación y otros fines científicos en los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea, Bruselas: Comisión Europea [referencia: 2 de septiembre de 2016].

Cothran, H. (ed.) (2002) Animal experimentation: Opposing viewpoints, San Diego: Greenhaven.

DeGrazia, D. (1999) “The ethics of animal research: What are the prospects for agreement?”, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 8, pp. 23-34.

Festing M. (1979) Inbred strains in biochemical research, London: Macmillan.

Frame, J. W. (1980) “A convenient animal model for testing bone substitute materials”, Journal of Oral surgery, 38, pp. 176-180.

Hench, L. L. & Thompson, I. (2010) “Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials”, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, suppl. 4, pp. S379-S391.

Jessen, B. A.; Mullins, J. S.; de Peyster, A. & Stevens, G. J. (2003) “Assessment of hepatocytes and liver slices as in vitro test systems to predict in vivo gene expression”, Toxilogical Sciences, 75, pp. 208-222 [referencia: 22 de abril de 2013].

Johansson, H.; Lindstedt, M.; Albrekt, A.-S. & Borrebaeck, C. A. K. (2011) “A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternativeto animal tests”, BMC Genomics, 12, p. 399 [referencia: 26 de noviembre de 2012].

Keong, L. C. & Halim, A. S. (2009) “In vitro models in biocompatibility assessment for biomedical-grade chitosan derivatives in wound management”, International Journal of Molecular Science, 10, pp. 1300-1313 [referencia: 22 de abril de 2013].

Krug, H. F. & Wick, P. (2011) “Nanotoxicology: an interdisciplinary challenge”, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 50, pp. 1260-1278.

LaFollette, H. & Shanks, N. (1997 [1996]) Brute science: Dilemmas of animal experimentation, new ed., New York: Routledge.

Langer, R. & Tirrell, D. A. (2004) “Designing materials for biology and medicine”, Nature, 428, pp. 487-492.

Liangos, O.; Tighiouart, H.; Perianayagam, M. C.; Kolyada, A.; Han, W. K.; Wald, R.; Bonventre, J. V. & Jaber, B. L. (2009) “Comparative analysis of urinary biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass”, Biomarkers, 14, pp. 423-431 [referencia: 26 de septiembre de 2012].

MacGregor, J. T. (2003) “The future of regulatory toxicology: Impact of the biotechnology revolution”, Toxicology Science, 75, pp. 236-248.

Maron, D. M. & Ames, B. N. (1983) “Revised methods for the salmonella mutagenicity test”, Mutation Research, 113, pp. 173-215.

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El uso de animales en la educación primaria y secundaria

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Asada, Y.; Tsuzuki, M.; Akiyama, S.; Macer, N. Y. & Macer, D. R. J. (1996) “High school teaching of bioethics in New Zealand, Australia, and Japan”, Journal of Moral Education, 25, pp. 401-420.

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Balcombe J. (2000) The use of animals in higher education: Problems, alternatives, and recommendations. Washington, D. C.: Humane Society Press.

Balcombe, J. P. (2001) “Dissection: The scientific case for alternatives”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 117-126.

Brown, M. J., Pearson, P. T.; Thompson, F. N. (1993) “Guidelines for animal surgery in research and teaching”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 54, pp. 1544-1559.

Capaldo, T. (2004) “The psychological effect on students of using animals in ways that they see as ethically, morally and religiously wrong”, ATLA: Alternatives to Lab Animals, 32, pp. 525-531 [accessed on 12 October 2013].

Carlson, P. (1995) Alternatives in medical education: Nonanimal methods, Washington, D.C.: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

Cross, T. R. (2004) “Scalpel or mouse: A statistical comparison of real and virtual frog dissections”, The American Biology Teacher, 66, pp. 408-411.

Francione, G. L. & Charlton, A. E. (1992) Vivisection and dissection in the classroom: A guide to conscientious objection. Jenkintown: American Anti-Vivisection Society.

Hart, L. A.; Wood, M. W.; & Hart, B.L. (2008) Why dissection?, Westport: Greenwood.

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Humane Society of the United States (2008) Comparative studies of dissection and other animal uses [Washington, D. C.: Humane Society of the United States, referencia: 19 de julio de 2010].

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources; Commission on Life Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences & National Academy of Engineering (1989) Principles and guidelines for the use of animals in precollege education, Washington: National Academy of Sciences [accessed on 2 September 2013].

Jukes, N., & Chiuia, M. (2003) From guinea pig to computer mouse: Alternative methods for a progressive, humane education, 2nd ed., Leicester: InterNICHE.

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Kingsmill, S. (1990) “Bullfrog blues: Where have all the bullfrogs gone?”, Seasons, 30 (2), pp. 16-19, 36.

Martinsen, S. & Jukes, N. (2005) “Towards a humane veterinary education”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 32, pp. 454-460.

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Oakley, J. (2012) “Dissection and choice in the science classroom: Student experiences, teacher responses, and a critical analysis of the right to refuse”, Journal of Teaching and Learning, 8 (2), pp. 15-29 [accessed on 26 February 2014].

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Valli, T. (2001) “Dissection: The scientific case for a sound medical education”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 127-130.

El uso de animales en las universidades

Akbarsha, M. A.; Pereira, S. & Gruber, F. P. (2010) “A National Center for Animal Alternatives in India: The Mahatma Gandhi-Doerenkamp Center for Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Life Science Education (MGDC)”, ALTEX, 27, sp. iss., pp. 53-58 [referencia: 31 de marzo de 2017].

Ammons, S. W. (1995) “Use of live animals in the curricula of U.S. medical schools in 1994”, Academic Medicine, 70, pp. 740-743.

Balcombe, J. (2000) The use of animals in higher education: Problems, alternatives, and recommendations, Washington, D. C.: Humane Society Press.

Balcombe, J. P. (2001) “Dissection: The scientific case for alternatives”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 118-126.

Bauer, M. S. & Seim, H. B., III. (1992) “Alternative methods to teach veterinary surgery”, Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 6, pp. 401-404.

Brembs, B. (2003) “Operant conditioning in invertebrates”, Current Opinion In Neurobiology, 13, pp. 710-711.

Brown, M. J.; Pearson, P. T. & Thompson, F. N. (1993) “Guidelines for animal surgery in research and teaching”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 54, pp. 1544-1559.

Capaldo, T. (2004) “The psychological effects on students of using animals in ways that they see as ethically, morally or religiously wrong”, ATLA: Alternatives to Lab Animals, 32, suppl. 1, pp. 525-531.

Carlson, P. (1995) Alternatives in medical education: Nonanimal methods, Washington, D. C.: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

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Francione, G. L. & Charlton, A. E. (1992) Vivisection and dissection in the classroom: A guide to conscientious objection, Jenkintown: American Anti-Vivisection Society.

Hart, L. A.; Wood, M. W. & Hart, B. L. (2008) Why dissection?, Westport: Greenwood.

Hart, L. A.; Wood, M. A. & Weng, H. Y. (2005) “Mainstreaming alternatives in veterinary medical education: Resource development and curricular reform”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 32, pp. 473-480.

Humane Society of the United States (2008) “Comparative studies of dissection and other animal uses”, humanesociety.org [referencia: 19 de julio de 2009].

Jukes, N. & Chiuia, M. (2003) From guinea pig to computer mouse: Alternative methods for a progressive, humane education, 2nd ed., Leicester: InterNICHE.

Martinsen, S. & Jukes, N. (2005) “Towards a humane veterinary education”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 32, pp. 454-460.

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Nobis, N. (2002) “Animal dissection and evidence-based life-science and health-professions education”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 5, pp. 157-161.

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Bases de datos de métodos de investigación que no usan animales

Akbarsha, M. A.; Pereira, S. & Gruber, F. P. (2009) “A national center for animal alternatives in India: The Mahatma Gandhi-Doerenkamp Center for Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Life Science Education (MGDC)”, ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experiments, 26, sp. iss., p. 20 [referencia: 30 de marzo de 2014].

Balcombe, J. P. (2001) “Dissection: The scientific case for alternatives”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 118-126.

Basketter, D. A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.; Hoffmann, S.; Jaworska, J.; Knudsen, T. B.; Landsiedel, R.; Leist, M.; Locke, P.; Maxwell, G.; McKim, J.; McVey, E. A.; Ouédraogo, G.; Patlewicz, G.; Pelkonen, O.; Roggen, E.; Rovida, C.; Ruhdel, I.; Schwarz, M.; Schepky, A.; Schoeters, G.; Skinner, N.; Trentz, K.; Turner, M.; Vanparys, P.; Yager, J.; Zurlo, J. & Hartung T. (2012) “A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing”, ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experiments, 29, pp. 3-91 [referencia: 18 de octubre de 2013].

Balls, M. (1994) “Replacement of animal procedures: Alternatives in research, education and testing”, Laboratory Animals, 28, pp. 193-211

Bauer, M. S. & Seim, H. B., III (1992) “Alternative methods to teach veterinary surgery”, Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 6, pp. 401-404.

Carlson, P. (1995) Alternatives in medical education: Nonanimal methods, Washington, D. C.: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.

Cross, T. R. (2004) “Scalpel or mouse: A statistical comparison of real and virtual frog dissections”, The American Biology Teacher, 66, pp. 408-411.

Doke, S. K. & Dhawale, S. C. (2013) “Alternatives to animal testing: A review”, Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 18 November [referencia: 14 de mayo de 2014].

European Commission (2011) Questions impact assessment; 2013 Implementation Date Marketing Ban Cosmetics Directive. Annex 2, Brussels: Europan Commision.

Garthoff, B. (2005) “Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207, pp. 388-392.

Hendriksen, C. F. (2009) “Replacement, reduction and refinement alternatives to animal use in vaccine potency measurement”, Expert Review of Vaccines, 8, pp. 313-322.

Judson, R.; Kavlock, R.; Martin, M.; Reif, D.; Houck, K.; Knudsen, T.; Richard, A.; Tice, R. R.; Whelan, M.; Xia, M.; Huang, R.; Austin, C.; Daston, G.; Hartung, T.; Fowle, J. R., III; Wooge, W.; Tong, W. & Dix, D. (2013) “Perspectives on validation of high-throughput assays supporting 21st century toxicity testing”, ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experiments, 30, pp. 51-66 [referencia: 11 de enero de 2014].

Knight, A.; Bailey, J. & Balcombe, J. (2006) “Animal carcinogenicity studies: Alternatives to the bioassay”, ATLA: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 34, p. 39.

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Lilienblum, W.; Dekant, W.; Foth, H.; Gebel, T.; Hengstler, J. G.; Kahl, R.; Kramer, P. J.; Schweinfurth, H. & Wollin, K. M. (2008) “Alternative methods to safety studies in experimental animals: Role in the risk assessment of chemicals under the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACH)”, Archives of Toxicology, 82, pp. 211-236.

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Scholz, S.; Sela, E.; Blaha, L.; Braunbeck, T.; Galay-Burgos, M.; García-Franco, M.; Guinea, J.; Klüver, N.; Schirmer, K.; Tanneberger, K.; Tobor-Kaplon, M.; Witters, H.; Belanger, S.; Benfenati, E.; Creton, S.; Cronin, M. T. D.; Eggen, R. I. L.; Embry, M.; Ekman, D.; Gourmelon, A.; Halder, M. & Hardy, B. (2013) “A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment”, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 67, pp. 506-530.

de Silva, O.; Basketter, D. A.; Barratt, M. D.; Corsini, E.; Cronin, M. T.; Das, P. K. & Ponec, M. (1996) “Alternative methods for skin sensitization testing”, ATLA: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 24, pp. 683-706.

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