Vegan nutrition: Introduction

Vegan nutrition: Introduction

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, which is made up of over 100,000 nutrition professionals in the U.S. and abroad, has shown in numerous reports and position papers that an appropriately planned vegan diet is nutritionally adequate for all stages of life.1 This organization is probably the most well respected dietetic organization in the world, and their guidelines and recommendations are adopted by national dietetic organizations in other countries as well.2 It is now understood that to be appropriate, any diet must include the necessary nutrients, regardless of the sources of those nutrients. Due to this, both vegan and nonvegan diets can be healthy, as long as they are balanced and include the nutrients we need.

For many different reasons, anyone can have diet-related problems, whether they consume animal products or not. However, because of the widely held view that animal products are essential for health, if someone who eats animal products has a diet-related health challenge, many people will see it as normal, whereas if someone who doesn’t eat animal products has a problem, many people will think it’s because they don’t eat them.

A diet that includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, legumes, grains, nuts, and seeds will meet practically all our nutritional needs. There are, however, certain nutrients that we must pay close attention to and others of which we should be aware. Those who consume animal products also have to be careful about their nutrient intake in order to avoid health problems. There are some deficiencies that both vegans and non-vegans are susceptible to such as vitamin D and calcium, some that are more common in vegans and some that are more common in non-vegans.

The following sections discuss some important nutrients. Everyone striving for optimal nutrition should know something about them. Some, like vitamin B-12, require special attention by vegans, although non-vegans also have to be careful about their levels of B-12, especially anyone over the age of 50. Others, like potassium, folic acid or beta-carotene, require more attention by non-vegans than by vegans.





You can visit too the section about special cases (pregnancy, lactation, infancy, elderly and athletes).

Further readings

Adams, C. J.; Breitman, P. & Messina, V. (2014) Never too late to go vegan: The over-50 guide to adopting and thriving on a plant-based diet, New York: The Experiment.

Davis, B. & Melina, V. (2014 [2000]) Becoming vegan, comprehensive ed., Summertown: Book Publishing.

Koeder, C. & Perez Cueto, F. J. A. (2022) “Vegan nutrition: A preliminary guide for health professionals”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 12 Aug.

Messina, V. (2013) Vegan for her: The women’s guide to being healthy and fit on a plant-based diet, Cambridge: Da Capo.

Norris, J. & Messina, V. (2020 [2011]) Vegan for life, 2nd ed., New York: Hachette.

Pavlina, E. (2003) Raising vegan children in a non-vegan world: A complete guide for parents, Tarzana: VegFamily.


1 Melina, V.; Craig, W. & Levin, S. (2016) “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian diets”, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116, pp. 1970-1980 [accessed on 8 September 2018].

2 Kaiser Permanente, the largest HMO in the United States, now recommends that people follow a plant-based diet, and organizations such as Mayo Clinic, Dietitians of Canada, the British National Health Service and the Dietitians Association of Australia have all affirmed that vegan diets are healthy. Melina, V.; Craig, W. & Levin, S. (2016) “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian diets”, op. cit. Dietitians Association of Australia (2022 [2018]) “Vegetarian nutrition role statement”, Dietitians Australia, 29 Jul [accessed on 4 August 2022]. Tuso, P. J.; Ismail, M. H.; Ha, B. P. & Bartolotto, C. (2013) “Nutritional update for physicians: Plant-based diets”, The Permanente Journal, 17 (2), pp. 61-66 [accessed on 21 November 2016]. United Kingdom. National Health Service (2018) “The vegan diet: Eat well”, NHS, 2 August [accessed on 21 November 2020]. Mayo Clinic (2020 [2016]) “Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition”, Healthy lifestyle: Nutrition and healthy eating, Aug. 20 [accessed on 21 November 2020]. Dietitians of Canada (2019) “Vegetarian and vegan diets: Information on vegetarian diets”, [accessed on 14 October 2020]. Nordic co-operation (2014) Nordic nutrition recommendations 2012: Integrating nutrition and physical activity, 5th ed., Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers [accessed on 23 September 2020].