We are excited to announce that we have awarded Dr. Meagan King a postdoctoral grant to carry out research on welfare biology in Canada. This is a new field of research at the intersection of the sciences of ecology and animal welfare, studying the wellbeing of animals living in the wild and ways of improving it. Her research will be carried out at the University of Guelph, and will be supervised by Dr. Claire Jardine, from Ontario Veterinary College.
This is a very neglected topic, and we are eager to advance more research on the subject. This project addresses not only human-caused sources of harm to animals living in the wild but natural causes of harm as well. This is important because the latter are extremely pressing yet neglected.
This project will assess the welfare, morbidity, and mortality of animals of different species across Canada. This research will analyze a number of sources of data on the subject, including data from wild animal rescue and rehabilitation centers across Canada. Previously, we funded a project that similarly uses data from rescue centers to get information on the harms to animals living in the wild in Greece. This seems like a promising approach using underutilized data on sources of harm to animals living in the wild.
Wild animal rescue centers sometimes collect data that can be very useful from the perspective of welfare biology. They sometimes collect data on the kinds of harm that wild animals who are admitted to their centers are suffering from. Looking at this data can help us get a better understanding of the most prevalent and significant causes of harm to animals living in the wild. This can help to inform us of what the most effective ways of helping them might be.
This research may be the most comprehensive of its kind in collecting data from diverse species and across such a large geographical area. By using such a large amount of data of this kind, we can get a better sense of how sources of harm and sources of mortality vary by species, region, season, degree of urbanization, and over time. This will include both animals living in the wild and those living in urban areas.
The research will identify effective interventions to help these animals, as well as promising areas for future research on the subject. We expect that the results of the project will have an impact especially among academics, but also among people interested in the defense of animals and the general public.
Thanks to all the people who support our work for making it possible for us to engage in projects such as this. We think that funding this kind of research could be very impactful, and we have quite a few other opportunities to fund research of this kind. Your donations and assistance are extremely valuable in helping us to fund more of these projects.
Below you can find a more detailed explanation of the research project that Dr. King will carry out under the supervision of Dr. Jardine about wild animal welfare, morbidity, and mortality in Canada.
While there is a heavy focus on collecting data related to wildlife loss or conservation, less is known about the welfare of wild animals who die from, or survive, the plethora of challenges they face. Sources of suffering for wild animals include natural stressors, such as hunger, thirst, disease, injuries, predation, and parasitism. Human activities that indirectly affect wild animals and exacerbate natural suffering can be unintended (e.g., crop production, vehicle impact, window impact, domestic cats) or mediated through habitat destruction (e.g., urbanization, conversion of wild lands to agricultural production), introduction of foreign species, pollution, and climate change.1 Regardless of intention, however, it is crucial that we understand and manage the factors impacting the welfare, morbidity, and mortality of wild animals.
Causes of morbidity and mortality for urban wildlife, such as raccoons, squirrels, and rabbits, are mainly related to human activity and disturbance (i.e. trauma from vehicle impact, window collisions, cat and dog predation, as well as disease and parasites).2 In Canada and the US alone, billions of birds die annually from cat predation, collisions, and other human factors.3 For animals who survive and are admitted to wild animal rehabilitation centers, they mainly suffer from parental loss (25-68% of admitted animals), cat attacks (5-29%), and trauma/impact (20-50%).4 Most of these threats are indirect or unintended sources of harm that require more attention in research and management efforts.5
Wild animal rehabilitation center data have been identified as an underutilized resource for understanding threats to animals living in the wild.6 Most of the rehabilitation studies thus far have been focused on specific species of conservation interest and those that do integrate multiple species data focus on specific regions, such as British Columbia, Canada,7 Britain,8 South Africa,9 and Queensland, Australia.10 To our knowledge, however, no study has combined data from several species and sources across a large area, such as Canada, to identify the major sources and risk factors of suffering for animals living in the wild.
The overall objective of this study is to assess wild animal welfare, morbidity, and mortality across Canada. We hypothesize that these factors will vary by region, species, season, and degree of urbanization. This research will contribute to addressing three of Animal Ethics’s research objectives: 1) assessing the welfare of animals living in the wild, 2) identifying ways animals can be negatively affected by natural causes and indirect human factors, and 3) studying urban ecology.
Data will be collected from two main sources:
Data from these sources will include species, life stage, cause of mortality/morbidity, and location collected. From these data, we will identify the main sources of wild animal suffering and mortality by species, region, season, degree of urbanization (i.e. urban, suburban, industrial, agricultural, natural) and over time.
These data will be integrated to identify the main reasons for wild animal suffering, by species, region, season, and degree of urbanization. From this, targeted recommendations can be made to mitigate specific welfare issues, focusing resources where they will be most effective. Additionally, we will identify understudied areas for future research.
Results from this project will be presented through:
1 Fraser, D. & MacRae, A. M. (2011) “Four types of activities that affect animals: Implications for animal welfare science and animal ethics philosophy”, Animal Welfare, 20, pp. 581-590.
2 Burton, D. L. & Doblar, K. A. (2004) “Morbidity and mortality of urban wildlife in the Midwestern United States”, in Shaw, W. W.; Harris, L. K. & Vandruff, L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Urban Wildlife Conservation, Tucson: University of Arizona. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, pp. 171-181.
3 Calvert, M.; Blazeby, J.; Altman, D. G.; Revicki, D. A.; Moher, D. & Brundage, M. D. (2013) “Reporting of patient-reported outcomes in randomized trials: The CONSORT PRO extension”, JAMA, 309, pp. 814-822 [accessed on 28 September 2019]. Loss, S. R.; Will, T. & Marra, P. P. (2015) “Direct mortality of birds from anthropogenic causes”, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 46, pp. 99-120.
4 Dubois, A. (2003) “The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions”, Comptes Rendus Biologies, 326, suppl. 1, pp. 9-21. Mullineaux, E. (2014) “Veterinary treatment and rehabilitation of indigenous wildlife”, Journal of Small Animal Practice, 55, pp. 293-300 [accessed on 15 October 2019].
5 Fraser, D. & MacRae, A. M. (2011) “Four types of activities that affect animals: Implications for animal welfare science and animal ethics philosophy”, op. cit.
6 Taylor-Brown, A.; Booth, R.; Gillett, A.; Mealy, E.; Ogbourne, S. M.; Polkinghorne, A. & Conroy, G. C. (2019) “The impact of human activities on Australian wildlife”, PLOS ONE, 14 (1) [accessed on 2 October 2019].
7 Dubois, A. (2003) “The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions”, op. cit.
8 Molony, T.; Zonie, Z. & Goodsmith, L. (2007) “Through our eyes: Participatory video in West Africa” Forced Migration Review, 27, pp. 37-38 [accessed on 14 September 2019].
9 Wimberger, K. & Downs, C. T. (2010) “Annual intake trends of a large urban animal rehabilitation centre in South Africa: A case study”, Animal Welfare, 19, pp. 501-513.
10 Taylor-Brown, A.; Booth, R.; Gillett, A.; Mealy, E.; Ogbourne, S. M.; Polkinghorne, A. & Conroy, G. C. (2019) “The impact of human activities on Australian wildlife”, op. cit.