Animals used for food bibliography


Alverson D. L.; Freeberg, M. K.; Murawski, S. A. & Pope, J. G. (1996 [1994]) A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [accessed on 22 July 2014].

Ashley, P. J. & Sneddon, L. U. (2007) “Pain and fear in fish”, in Branson, E. J. (ed.) Fish welfare, Oxford: Blackwell, ch. 4.

Braithwaite, V. (2004) Do fish feel pain?, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Braithwaite, V. A. & Huntingford, F. A. (2004) “Fish and welfare: Do fish have the capacity for pain perception and suffering?”, Animal Welfare, 13, pp. 87-92.

Brothers, N. P. (1991) “Albatross mortality and associated bait loss in the Japanese longline fishery in the southern ocean”, Biological Conservation, 55, pp. 255-268.

Caswell, H.; Brault, S.; Read, A. J. & Smith, T. D. (1998) “Harbour porpoise and fisheries: An uncertain analysis of incidental mortality”, Ecological Applications, 8, pp. 1226-1238.

Catchpole, T. L.; Frid, C. L. J. & Gray, T. S. (2005) “Discards in North sea fisheries: Causes, consequences and solutions”, Marine Policy, 29, pp. 421-430.

Chandroo, K. P.; Duncan, I. J. H. & Moccia, R. D. (2004) “Can fish suffer?: Perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 86, pp. 225-250.

Chandroo, K. P.; Yue, S. & Moccia, R. D. (2004) “An evaluation of current perspectives on consciousness and pain in fishes”, Fish and Fisheries, 5, pp. 281-295.

Demaster, D. J.; Fowler, C. W.; Perry, S. L. & Richlen, M. E. (2001) “Predation and competition: The impact of fisheries on marine mammal populations over the next one hundred years”, Journal of Mammology, 82, pp. 641-651.

Dunlop, R. & Laming, P. (2005) “Mechanoreceptive and nociceptive responses in the central nervous system of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)”, The Journal of Pain, 6, pp. 561-568.

Elwood, R. W. (2011) “Pain and suffering in invertebrates?”, ILAR Journal, 52, pp. 175-184.

Elwood, R. W. & Adams, L. (2015) “Electric shock causes physiological stress responses in shore crabs, consistent with prediction of pain”, Biology Letters, 11 (11) [accessed on 13 November 2015].

Erickson, H. S. (2003) “Information resources on fish welfare: 1970-2003”, Beltsville: U. S. Department of Agriculture [accessed on 13 April 2013].

Fitzgerald, K. T. (2013) “Longline fishing (how what you don’t know can hurt you)”, Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 28, pp. 151-162.

Gabriel, O. & von Brandt, A. (2005) Fish catching methods of the world, Oxford: Blackwell.

Gilman, E.; Brothers, N.; McPherson, G. & Dalzell, P. (2006) “A review of cetacean interactions with longline gear”, Journal of Cetacean Research and Management, 8, pp. 215-223.

Hall, M. A. (1996) “On bycatches”, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 6, pp. 319-352.

List, C. J. (1997) “On angling as an act of cruelty”, Environmental Ethics, 19, pp. 333-334.

Machin, K. L. (1999) “Amphibian pain and analgesia”, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife, 30, pp. 2-10.

Mather, J. A. (2001) “Animal suffering: An invertebrate perspective”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 151-156.

Mather, J. A. & Anderson, R. C. (2007) “Ethics and invertebrates: A cephalopod perspective”, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 75, pp. 119-129.

Mazeaud, M. M.; Mazeaud, F. & Donaldson, E. M. (1977) “Primary and secondary effects of stress in fish: Some new data with a general review”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 106, pp. 201-212.

Mood, A. (2010) “Worse things happen at sea: The welfare of wild-caught fish”, [accessed on 18 October 2010].

Mood, A. & Brooke, P. (2010) “Estimating the number of fish caught in global fishing each year”, [accessed on 18 October 2010].

Morizur, Y.; Berrow, S. D.; Tregenza, N. J. C.; Couperus, A. S. & Pouvreau, S. (1999) “Incidental catches of marine-mammals in pelagic trawl fisheries of the northeast Atlantic”, Fisheries Research, 41, pp. 297-307.

Parker, C. (2017) “‘Pair trawling’ blamed for death of sea mammals”, Irish Examiner, January 12 [accessed on 20 January 2017].

Pauly, D. & Zeller, D. (2016) “Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining”, Nature Communications, 7 [accessed on 25 January 2016].

Read, A. J.; Drinker, P. & Northridge, S. (2006) “Bycatch of marine mammals in the U.S. and Global Fisheries”, Conservation Biology, 20, pp. 163-169.

Rose, J. D. (2002) “The neurobehavioral nature of fishes and the question of awareness and pain”, Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10, pp. 1-38.

Sneddon, L. U. (2003) “The evidence for pain in fish: The use of morphine as an analgesic”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 83, pp. 153-162.

Sneddon, L. U.; Braithwaite, V. A. & Gentle, M. J. (2003) “Novel object test: Examining nociception and fear in the rainbow trout”, The Journal of Pain, 4, pp. 431-440.

Tacon, A. G. J. & Metian, M. (2009) “Fishing for aquaculture: Nonfood use of small pelagic forage fish, a global perspective”, Reviews in Fisheries Science, 17, pp. 305-317.

Tasker, M. L.; Camphuysen,C. J.; Cooper, J.; Garthe, S.; Montevecchi, W. & Blaber, S. (2000) “The impacts of fishing on marine birds”, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, pp. 531-547.

Wade, P. R. (1998) “Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinnipeds”, Marine Mammal Science, 14, pp. 1-37.

Wall, A. J. (2001) “Ethical considerations in the handling and slaughter of farmed fish”, in Kestin, S. C. & Warriss, P. D. (eds.) Farmed fish quality, Oxford: Fishing News, pp. 108-115.

Zerbini, A. N. & Kotas, J. E. (1998) “A note on cetacean bycatch in pelagic driftnetting off Southern Brazil”, Report of the International Whaling Commission, 48, pp. 519-524.


Fish farming

Acerete, L.; Balasch, J. C.; Espinosa, E.; Josa, A. & Tort, L. (2004) “Physiological responses in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) subjected to stress by transport and handling”, Aquaculture, 237, pp. 167-178.

Alanara, A. & Brannas, E. (1996) “Dominance in demand-feeding behaviour in Arctic charr and rainbow trout: The effect of stocking density”, Journal of Fish Biology, 48, pp. 242-254.

Alanara, A.; Winberg, S.; Brannas, E.; Kiessling, A.; Hoglund, E. & Elofsson, U. (1998) “Feeding behaviour, brain serotonergic activity levels, and energy reserves of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) within a dominance hierarchy”, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76, pp. 212-220.

Andrew, J. E.; Holm, J.; Kadri, S. & Huntingford, F. A. (2004) “The effect of competition on the feeding efficiency and feed handling behaviour in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) held in tanks”, Aquaculture, 232, pp. 317-331.

Andrew, J. E.; Noble, C.; Kadri, S.; Jewell, H. & Huntingford, F. A. (2002) “The effects of demand feeding on swimming speed and feeding responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L. and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. in sea cages”, Aquaculture Research, 33, pp. 501-507.

Arends, R. J.; Mancera, J. M.; Munoz, J. L.; Bonga, S. E. W. & Flik, G. (1999) “The stress response of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to air exposure and confinement”, Journal of Endocrinology, 163, pp. 149-157.

Ashley, P. J. (2007) “Fish welfare: Current issues in aquaculture”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104, pp. 199-235.

Bandeen, J. & Leatherland, J. F. (1997) “Transportation and handling stress of white suckers raised in cages”, Aquaculture International, 5, pp. 385-396.

Baras, E. & Jobling, M. (2002) “Dynamics of intracohort cannibalism in cultured fish”, Aquaculture Research, 33, pp. 461-479.

Barton, B. A. (2000a) “Salmonid fishes differ in their cortisol and glucose responses to handling and transport stress”, North American Journal of Aquaculture, 62, pp. 12-18.

Barton, B. A. (2000b) “Stress in fishes: A diversity of responses”, American Zoologist, 40, pp. 937-1937.

Barton, B. A.; Ribas, L.; Acerete, L. & Tort, L. (2005) “Effects of chronic confinement on physiological responses of juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., to acute handling”, Aquaculture Research, 36, pp. 172-179.

Barton, B. A.; Schreck, C. B. & Barton, L. D. (1987) “Effects of chronic cortisol administration and daily acute stress on growth, physiological conditions, and stress responses in juvenile rainbow trout”, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2, pp. 173-185.

Bell, A.; Bron, J.; Turnbull, J. F.; Adams, C. E. & Huntingford F. A. (2002) “Factors influencing the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in commercial marine cages”, Research in Veterinary Science, 72 (Suppl. A), pp. 7-8.

Bostock, J.; McAndrew, B.; Richards, R.; Jauncey, K.; Telfer, T.; Lorenzen, K.; Little, D.; Ross, L.; Handisyde, N.; Gatward, I. & Corner, R. (2010) “Aquaculture: Global status and trends”, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365, pp. 2897-2912.

Borgatti, R. & Buck, E. H. (2004) Open ocean aquaculture: CRS report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, Washington: Library of Congress.

Chandroo, K. P.; Cooke, S. J.; McKinley, R. S. & Moccia, R. D. (2005) “Use of electromyogram telemetry to assess the behavioural and energetic responses of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) to transportation stress”, Aquaculture Research, 36, pp. 1226-1238.

Chandroo, K. P.; Yue, S. & Moccia, R. D. (2004) “An evaluation of current perspectives on consciousness and pain in fishes”, Fish and Fisheries, 5, pp. 281-295.

Chiua, A.; Lib, L.; Guob, S.; Baib, J.; Fedora, C. & Naylora, R. L. (2013) “Feed and fishmeal use in the production of carp and tilapia in China”, Aquaculture, 414-415, pp. 127-134.

Conte, F. S. (2004) “Stress and the welfare of cultured fish”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 86, pp. 205-223.

Contreras-Sanchez, W. M.; Schreck, C. B.; Fitzpatrick, M. S. & Pereira, C. B. (1998) “Effects of stress on the reproductive performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)”, Biology of Reproduction, 58, pp. 439-447.

Cutts, C. J.; Metcalfe, N. B. & Taylor, A. C. (2002) “Fish may fight rather than feed in a novel environment: Metabolic rate and feeding motivation in juvenile Atlantic salmon”, Journal of Fish Biology, 61, pp. 1540-1548.

Davis, K. B.; Griffin, B. R. & Gray, W. L. (2002) “Effect of handling stress on susceptibility of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and channel catfish virus infection”, Aquaculture, 214, pp. 55-66 [accessed on 30 April 2014].

De Silva, S. S. & Turchini, G. M. (2008) “Towards understanding the impacts of the pet food industry on world fish and seafood supplies”, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 21, pp. 459-467.

Devlin, R. H.; d’Andrade, M.; Uh, M. & Biagi, C. A. (2004) “Population effects of growth hormone transgenic coho salmon depend on food availability and genotype by environment interactions”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, pp. 9303-9308.

Einen, O.; Waagan, B. & Thomassen, M. S. (1998) “Starvation prior to slaughter in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): I. Effects on weight loss, body shape, slaughter- and fillet-yield, proximate and fatty acid composition”, Aquaculture, 166, pp. 85-104.

Ejike, C. & Schreck, C. B. (1980) “Stress and social hierarchy rank in coho salmon”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 109, pp. 423-426.

Ellis, T.; North, B.; Scott, A. P.; Bromage, N. R. & Porter, M. (2001) “What is stocking density”, Trout News, 32, pp. 35-37.

Ellis, T.; North, B.; Scott, A. P.; Bromage, N. R.; Porter, M. & Gadd, D. (2002) “The relationships between stocking density and welfare in farmed rainbow trout”, Journal of Fish Biology, 61, pp. 493-531.

Erikson, U.; Gansel, L.; Frank, K.; Svendsen, E. & Digre, H. (2016) “Crowding of Atlantic salmon in net-pen before slaughter”, Aquaculture, 465, pp. 395-400.

Erikson, U.; Sigholt, T. & Seland, A. (1997) “Handling stress and water quality during live transportation and slaughter of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)”, Aquaculture, 149, pp. 243-252.

Esteve, C. & Alcaide, E. (2009) “Influence of diseases on the wild eel stock: The case of Albufera Lake”, Aquaculture, 289, pp. 143-149.

Ewing, R. D. & Ewing, S. K. (1995) “Review of the effects of rearing density on the survival to adulthood for Pacific salmon”, Progressive Fish-Culturist, 57, pp. 1-25.

Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) (1996) “Report on the welfare of farmed fish”, [accessed on 14 May 2013].

Fernö, A.; Huse, I.; Juell, J. E. & Bjordal, A. (1995) “Vertical distribution of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in net pens: Trade-off between surface light avoidance and food attraction”, Aquaculture, 132, pp. 285-296.

Fjelldal, P. G.; & Hansen, T.; Breck, O.; Ørnsrud, R.; Lock, E.-J.; Waagbø, R.; Wargelius, A. & Eckhard Witten, P. (2012) “Vertebral deformities in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) – etiology and pathology”, Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 28, pp. 433-440.

Folkvord, A. & Otteråb, H. (1993) “Effects of initial size distribution, day length, and feeding frequency on growth, survival, and cannibalism in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)”, Aquaculture, 114, pp. 243-260.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011) Fisheries and aquaculture statistics: Aquaculture production, [Rome]: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [accessed on 11 January 2013].

Ginés, R.; Palicio, M.; Zamorano, M. J.; Argüello, A.; López, J. L. & Afonso, J. M. (2002) “Starvation before slaughtering as a tool to keep freshness attributes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)”, Aquaculture International, 10, pp. 379-389.

Gornati, R.; Papis, E.; Rimoldi, S.; Terova, G.; Saroglia, M. & Bernardini, G. (2004) “Rearing density influences the expression of stress-related genes in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)”, Gene, 341, pp. 111-118.

Greaves, K. & Tuene, S. (2001) “The form and context of aggressive behaviour in farmed Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.)”, Aquaculture, 193, pp. 139-147.

Griffin, B. R.; Davis, K. B. & Schlenk, D. (1999) “Effect of simulated copper sulphate on stress indicators in channel catfish”, Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 11, pp. 231-236.

Griffin, B. R.; Davis, K. B.; Darwish, A. & Straus, D. L. (2002) “Effect of exposure to potassium permanganate on stress indicators in channel catfish”, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 33, pp. 1-9.

Hart, P. J. B. (1993) “Teleost foraging: Facts and theories”, in Pitcher, T. J. (ed.) Behaviour of teleost fishes, 2nd ed., London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 253-284.

Håstein, T. (2004) “Animal welfare issues relating to aquaculture”, in World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Global Conference on Animal Welfare: An OIE Initiative. Proceedings, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, pp. 219-231 [accessed on 17 May 2013].

Huntingford, F. A.; Adams, C.; Braithwaite, V. A.; Kadri, S.; Pottinger, T. G.; Sandøe, P. & Turnbull, J. F. (2006) “Current issues in fish welfare”, Journal of Fish Biology, 68, pp. 332-372.

Johnson, S. C.; Treasurer, J. W.; Bravo, S.; Nagasawa, K. & Kabata, Z. (2004) “A review of the impact of parasitic copepods on marine aquaculture”, Zoological Studies, 43, pp. 229-243.

Iguchi, K.; Ogawa, K.; Nagae, M. & Ito, F. (2003) “The influence of rearing density on stress response and disease susceptibility of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)”, Aquaculture, 220, pp. 515-523.

Iversen, M.; Finstad, B.; McKinley, R. S.; Eliassen, R. A.; Carlsen, K. T. & Evjen, T. (2005) “Stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts during commercial well boat transports, and effects on survival after transfer to sea”, Aquaculture, 243, pp. 373-382.

Iversen, M.; Finstad, B. & Nilssen, K. J. (1998) “Recovery from loading and transport stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts”, Aquaculture, 168, pp. 387-394.

Juell, J. E.; Oppedal, F.; Boxaspen, K. & Taranger, G. L. (2003) “Submerged light increases swimming depth and reduces fish density of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in production cages”, Aquaculture Research, 34, pp. 469-477.

Katavić, I. & Jug-dujaković, J. (1989) “Cannibalism as a factor affecting the survival”, Aquaculture, 77, pp. 135-143.

Krkošek, M.; Lewis, M. A.; Morton, A.; Frazer, L. N. & Volpe, J. P. (2006) “Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, pp. 15506-15510.

Johansen, L. H.; Jensen, I.; Mikkelsen, H.; Bjørn, P. A.; Jansen, P. A. & Bergh, O. (2011) “Disease interaction and pathogens exchange between wild and farmed fish populations with special reference to Norway”, Aquaculture, 315, pp. 167-186.

Montero, D.; Izquierdo, M. S.; Tort, L.; Robaina, L. & Vergara, J. M. (1999) “High stocking density produces crowding stress altering some physiological and biochemical parameters in gilthead seabream, Sparus auratus, juveniles”, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 20, pp. 53-60.

Mood, A. & Brooke, P. (2012) “Estimating the number of farmed fish killed in global aquaculture each year”, [accessed on 18 January 2013].

Moreau, D. T. R. & Fleming, I. A. (2011) “Enhanced growth reduces precocial male maturation in Atlantic salmon”, Functional Ecology, 26, pp. 399-405.

New, M. B. (2002) Farming freshwater prawns: A manual for the culture of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [accessed on 23 February 2013].

Pickering, A. D. (1998) “Stress responses in farmed fish”, in Black, K. D. & Pickering, A. D. (eds.) Biology of farmed fish, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 222-255.

Puvanendran, V. & Brown, J. A. (2002) “Foraging, growth and survival of Atlantic cod larvae reared in different light intensities and photoperiods”, Aquaculture, 214, pp. 131-151.

Robb, D. H. F. & Kestin, S. C. (2002) “Methods used to kill fish: Field observations and literature reviewed”, Animal Welfare, 11, pp. 269-282.

Rose, J. D. (2002) “The neurobehavioural nature of fishes and the question of awareness and pain”, Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10, pp. 1-38.

Rotllant, J. & Tort, L. (1997) “Cortisol and glucose responses after acute stress by net handling in the sparid red porgy previously subjected to crowding stress”, Journal of Fish Biology, 51, pp. 21-28.

Rouger, Y.; Aubin, J.; Breton, B.; Fauconneau, B.; Fostier, A.; Le Bail, P.; Loir, M.; Prunet, P. & Maisse, G. (1998) “Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to transport stress”, Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture, 350-351, pp. 511-519.

Rijkers, G. T.; Teunissen, A. G.; Van Oosterom, R. & Van Muiswinkel, W. B. (1980) “The immune system of cyprinid fish. The immunosuppressive effect of the antibiotic oxytetracycline in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)”, Aquaculture, 19, pp. 177-189.

Sandodden, R.; Findstad, B. & Iversen, M. (2001) “Transport stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Anaesthesia and recovery”, Aquaculture Research, 32, pp. 87-90.

Scott, A. P.; Pinillos, M. & Ellis, T. (2001) “Why measure steroids in fish plasma when you can measure them in water?”, in Goos, H. J. Th.; Rastogi, R. K.; Vaudry, H. & Pierantoni, R. (eds.) Perspectives in comparative endrocrinology: Unity and diversity, Bologna: Monduzzi, pp. 1291-1295.

Skjervold, P. O.: Fjaera, P. B.; Ostby, P. B. & Einen, O. (2001) “Live-chilling and crowding stress before slaughter of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)”, Aquaculture, 192, pp. 267-282.

Sneddon, L. U.; Braithwaite, V. A. & Gentle, M. J. (2003) “Do fishes have nociceptors? Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system”, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270, pp. 1115-1121 [accessed on 20 June 2014].

Soderberg, R. W.; Meade, J. W. & Redell, L. A. (1993) “Growth, survival, and food conversion of Atlantic salmon reared at four different densities with common water quality”, The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 55, pp. 29-31.

Southgate, P. & Wall, T. (2001) “Welfare of farmed fish at slaughter”, In Practice, 23, pp. 277-284.

Strangeland, K.; Hoie, S. & Taksdal, T. (1996) “Experimental induction of infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) post-smolts”, Journal of Fish Diseases, 19, pp. 323-327.

Szczepkowski, M. & Kolma, R. (2011) “A simple method for collecting sturgeon eggs using a catheter”, Archives of Polish Fisheries, 19, pp. 123-128.

Sørum, U. & Damsgard, B. (2003) “Effects of anaesthetisation and vaccination on feed intake and growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)”, Aquaculture, 232, pp. 333-341.

Tacon, A. G. J. & Metian, M. (2009) “Fishing for aquaculture: Non-food use of small pelagic forage fish – A global perspective”, Reviews in Fisheries Science, 17, pp. 305-317.

Thorburn, M. A.; Teare, G. F.; Martin, S. W. & Moccia, R. D. (2001) “Group-level factors associated with chemotherapeutic treatment regiments in land-based troutfarms in Ontario, Canada”, Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 50, pp. 451-466.

Turnbull, J. F.; Bell, A.; Adams, C. E.; Bron, J. & Huntingford, F. A. (2005) “Stocking density and welfare of cage farmed Atlantic salmon: Application of a multivariate analysis”, Aquaculture, 243, pp. 121-132.

Vazzana, M.; Cammarata, M.; Cooper, E. L. & Parrinello, N. (2002) “Confinement stress in seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) depresses peritoneal leukocyte cytotoxicity”, Aquaculture, 210, pp. 231-243.

Wedermeyer, G. A. (1997) “Effects of rearing conditions on the health and physiological quality of fish in intensive culture”, in Barton, B. A.; Wedemeyer, G. A.; Pankhurst, N. W.; Kraak, G. Van der; Sumpter, J. P.; McDonald, G.; Milligan, L.; Schreck, C. B.; Potinger, T. D.; Pickering, A. D.; Balm, P. H. M.; Fletcher, T. C. & Morgan, J. D. Fish stress and health in aquaculture, New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 35-71.

Wendelaar-Bonga, S. E. W. (1997) “The stress response in fish”, Physiological Reviews, 77, pp. 591-625.

Winfree, R. A.; Kindschi, G. A. & Shaw, H. T. (1998) “Elevated water temperature, crowding and food deprivation accelerate fin erosion in juvenile steelhead”, Progressive Fish-Culturist, 60, pp. 192-199 [accessed on 6 May 2017].

Yildiz, H. Y. & Pulatsu, S. (1999) “Evaluation of the secondary stress response in healthy Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) after treatment with a mixture of formalin, malachite green and methylene blue”, Aquaculture Research, 30, pp. 379-383.


Chickens and hens

Aho, P. W. (2002) “Introduction to the US chicken meat industry”, in Bell, D. D. & Weaver, W. D., Jr. (eds.) Commercial chicken meat and egg roduction, 5th ed., Norwell: Kluwer Academic, pp. 801-818.

Al-Rawi, B. & Craig, J. V. (1975) “Agonistic behavior of caged chickens related to group size and area per bird”, Applied Animal Ethology, 2, pp. 69-80.

Anil, L.; Anil, S. S. & Deen, J. (2002) “Relationship between postural behaviour and gestation stall dimensions in relation to sow size”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 77, p. 173.

Appleby, M. C. & Hughes, B. O. (1991) “Welfare of laying hens in cages and alternative systems: Environmental, physical and behavioral aspects”, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 47, pp. 109-128.

Appleby, M. C.; Mench, J. A & Hughes, B. O. (2004) Poultry behaviour and welfare, Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Banks, E. M. & Allee, W. C. (1957) “Some relations between flock size and agonistic behavior in domestic hens”, Physiological Zoology, 30, pp. 255-268.

Bessei W. (2006) “Welfare of broilers: A review”, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62, pp. 455-466.

Bestman, M. W. P. & Wagenaar, J. P. (2003) “Farm level factors associated with feather pecking in organic laying hens”, Livestock Production Science, 80, pp. 133-140.

Blackshaw, J. K., & McVeigh, J. F. (1985) “Stereotype behaviour in sows and gilts housed in stalls, tethers, and groups”, in Fox, M. W. & Mickley, L. D. Advances in Animal Welfare Science 1984, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 163-174.

Boersma, S. (2001) “Managing rapid growth rate in broilers”, World Poultry, 17 (8), pp. 20-21 [accessed on 14 February 2014].

Bracke, M. B. M.; Metz, J. H. M.; Spruijt, B. M. & Dijkhuizen, A. A. (1999) “Overall welfare assessment of pregnant sow housing systems based on interviews with experts”, Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 47, pp. 93-104.

Brake, J. & Thaxton, P. (1979) “Physiological changes in caged layers during a forced molt. 2. Gross changes in organs”, Poultry Science, 58, pp. 707-716.

Breward, J. & Gentle, M. J. (1985) “Neuroma formation and abnormal afferent nerve discharges after partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry”, Experientia, 41, pp. 1132-1134.

Brown, J. M. E.; Edwards, S. A.; Smith, W. J.; Thompson, E. & Duncan, J. (1996) “Welfare and production implications of teeth clipping and iron injection of piglets in outdoor systems in Scotland”, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 27, pp. 95-105.

Burt, D. W. (2002) “Applications of biotechnology in the poultry industry”, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 58, pp. 5-13.

Cooper, J. J. & Albentosa, M. J. (2003) “Behavioural priorities of laying hens”, Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, 14, pp. 127-149.

Craig, J. V. & Swanson, J. C. (1994) “Review: Welfare perspectives on hens kept for egg production”, Poultry Science, 73, pp. 921-938.

Cronin, G. M.; Smith, J. A.; Hodge, F. M. & Hemsworth, P. H. (1994) “The behaviour of primiparous sows around farrowing in response to restraint and straw bedding”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 39, pp. 269-280.

Dagorn, J. & Aumaitre, A. (1979) “Sow culling; reasons for and effect on productivity”, Livestock Production Science, 6, pp. 167-177.

Dawkins, M. S. & Hardie, S. (1989) “Space needs of laying hens”, British Poultry Science, 30, pp. 413-416.

Duncan, I. J.; Slee, G. S.; Seawright, E. & Breward, J. (1989) “Behavioural consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry”, British Poultry Science, 30, pp. 479-489.

Edgar, J. L.; Paul, E. S. & Nicol, C. J. (2013) “Protective mother hens: Cognitive influences on the avian maternal response”, Animal Behaviour, 86, pp. 223-229.

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Eisnitz, G. (1997) Slaughterhouse: The shocking story of greed, neglect, and inhumane treatment inside the U.S. meat industry, Amherst: Prometheus.

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Gentle M. J.; Hunter, L. N. & Corr, S. A. (1997) “Effects of caudolateral neostriatal ablations on pain-related behaviour in the chicken”, Physiology & Behavior, 61, pp. 493-498.

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Glatz, P. C. (2005) Beak trimming, Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.

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Grigor, P. N.; Hughes, B. O. & Appleby, M. C. (1995) “Effects of regular handling and exposure to an outside area on subsequent fearfulness and dispersal in domestic hens”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 44, pp. 47-55

Guesdon, V.; Ahmed, A. M. H.; Mallet, S.; Faure, J. M. & Nys, Y. (2006) “Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality”, British Poultry Science, 47, pp. 12-23.

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Janczak, A. M.; Torjesen, P.; Palme, R. & Bakken, M. (2007) “Effects of stress in hens on the behaviour of their offspring”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 107, pp. 66-77.

Julian, R. J. (2004) “Evaluating the impact of metabolic disorders on the welfare of broilers”, in Weeks, C. & Butterworth, A. (eds.) Measuring and auditing broiler welfare. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Keeling, L. & Svedberg, J. (1999) Legislation banning conventional battery cages in Sweden and subsequent phase-out programme, Skara: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Kjaer, J. & Sørensen, P. (1997) “Feather pecking behaviour in White Leghorns, a genetic study”, British Poultry Science, 38, pp. 333-341

Koelkebeck, K. W.; Amoss, M. S. & Cain, J. R. (1987) “Production, physiological and behavioral responses of laying hens in different management environments”, Poultry Science, 66, pp. 397-407.

Kristensen, H. H. & Wathes, C. M. (2000) “Ammonia and poultry welfare: A review”, World Poultry Science Journal, 56, pp. 235-245.

Lay, Jr., D. C.; Fulton, R. M.; Hester, P. Y.; Karcher, D. M.; Kjaer, J. B.; Mench, J. A.; Mullens, B. A.; Newberry, R. C.; Nicol, C. J. & Mench, J. A. (2002) “Broiler breeders: Feed restriction and welfare”, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 58, pp. 23-29.

Lawrence, A. B. & Terlouw, E. (1993) “A review of behavioral factors involved in the development and continued performance of stereotypic behaviors in pigs”, Journal of Animal Science, 71, pp. 2815-2825 [accessed on 2 January 2014].

Marchant, J. N. & Broom, D. M. (1996) “Effects of dry sow housing conditions on muscle weight and bone strength”, Animal Science, 62, pp. 105-113.

Marchant, J. N.; Rudd, A. R.; Mendl, M. T.; Broom, D. M.; Meredith, M. J.; Corning, S. & Simmins, P. H. (2000) “Timing and causes of piglet mortality in alternative and conventional farrowing systems”, Veterinary Record, 147, pp. 209-214.

McGlone, J. J.; Vines, B.; Rudine, A. C. & DuBois, P. (2004) “The physical size of gestating sows”, Journal of Animal Science, 82, pp. 2421-2427 [accessed on 13 June 2013].

McGlone, J. J.; Von Borell, E. H.; Deen, J.; Johnson, A. K.; Levis, D. G.; Meunier-Salaün, M.; Morrow, J.; Reeves, D.; Salak-Johnson, J. L. & Sundberg, P. L. (2004) “Review: Compilation of the scientific literature comparing housing systems for gestating sows and gilts using measures of physiology, behavior, performance, and health”, The Professional Animal Scientist, 20, 105-117 [accessed on 16 January 2014].

Mitchell, M. A. & Kettlewell, P. J. (1998) “Physiological stress and welfare of broiler chickens in transit: Solutions not problems!”, Poultry Science, 77, pp. 1803-1814.

de Mol, R. M.; Schouten, W. G. P.; Evers, E.; Drost, H.; Houwers, H. W. J. & Smits, A. C. (2006) “A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens”, NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 54, pp. 157-168.

Morris, M. P. (1993) “National survey of leg problems”, Broiler Industry, 56 (5), pp. 20-24.

National Chicken Council (2011) “U.S. broiler performance”,, February 7 [accessed on 13 March 2012].

Newman, S. & Leeson, S. (1998) “Effect of housing birds in cages or an aviary system on bone characteristics”, Poultry Science, 77, pp. 1492-1496.

Nicol, C. J. (1987) “Behavioural responses of laying hens following a period of spatial restriction”, Animal Behaviour, 35, pp. 1709-1719.

O’Sullivan, N. P. & Porter, R. E. (2011) “Hen welfare in different housing systems”, Poultry Science, 90, pp. 278-294

Olkowski, A. A. & Classen, H. L. (1997) “Malignant ventricular dysrhythmia in broiler chickens dying of sudden death syndrome”, Veterinary Record, 140, pp. 177-179.

Onbasilar, E. E. & Aksoy, F. T. (2005) “Stress parameters and immune response of layers under different cage floor and density conditions”, Livestock Production Science, 95, pp. 255-263.

Patterson, P. H. & Siegel, H. S. (1998) “Impact of cage density on pullet performance and blood parameters of stress”, Poultry Science, 77, pp. 32-40.

Pi, C.; Rou, Z. & Horowitz, S. (2014) “Fair or fowl?: Industrialization of poultry production in China”, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, February [accessed on 24 December 2016].

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Salak-Johnson, J. L.; Niekamp, S. R.; Rodriguez-Zas, S. L.; Ellis, M. & Curtis, S. E. (2007) “Space allowance for dry sows in pens: Body condition, skin lesions, and performance”, Journal of Animal Science, 85, pp. 1758-1769 [accessed on 3 September 2013].

Savory, C. J. (1995) “Feather pecking and cannibalism”, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 51, pp. 215-219.

Savory, C. J. (2004) “Laying hen welfare standards: A classic case of ‘power to the people’”, Animal Welfare, 13, pp. S153-S158.

Savory, C. J.; Jack, M. C. & Sandilands, V. (2006) “Behavioural responses to different floor space allowances in small groups of laying hens”, British Poultry Science, 47, pp. 120-124.

Sherow, D. (1975) Successful duck and goose raising, Pine River: Stromberg.

Sherwin, C. M., Richards, G. J. & Nicol, C. J. (2010) “Comparison of the welfare of layer hens in 4 housing systems in the UK”, British Poultry Science, 51, pp. 488-499.

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Smith, S. F.; Appleby, M. C. & Hughes, B. O. (1993) “Nesting and dustbathing by hens in cages: Matching and mis-matching between behaviour and environment”, British Poultry Science, 34, pp. 21-33.

Tactacan, G. B.; Guenter, W.; Lewis, N. J.; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J. C. & House, J. D. (2009) “Performance and welfare of laying hens in conventional and enriched cages”, Poultry Science, 88, pp. 698-707.

Tauson, R. (1985) “Mortality in laying hens caused by differences in cage design”, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 34, pp. 193-209.

Tauson, R.; Wahlstrom, A. & Abrahamsson, P. (1999) “Effect of two floor housing systems and cages on health, production, and fear response in layers”, The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8, pp. 152-159.

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Webster, A. B. (2004) “Welfare implications of avian osteoporosis”, Poultry Science, 83, pp. 184-192.

Whates, C. M. (1998) “Aerial emissions from poultry production”, World Poultry Science Journal, 54, pp. 241-251.

Wilkins, L. J.; McKinstry, J. L.; Avery, N. C.; Knowles, T. K.; Brown, S. N.; Tarlton, J. & Nicol, C. J. (2011) “Influence of housing system and design on bone strength and keel-bone fractures in laying hens”, Veterinary Record, 169, pp. 414-420

Zimmerman, P. H. & van Hoof, J. A (2000) “Thwarting of behaviour in different contexts and the gakel-call in the laying hen”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 69, pp. 255-264.


Cows, calves and steers

Albright, J. L. (1972) “To dock or not to dock tails”, Hoard’s Dairyman, 117, pp. 420-426.

Bourguet, C.; Deiss, V.; Cohen Tannugi, C. & Terlouw, E. M. C. (2011) “Behavioural and physiological reactions of cattle in a commercial abattoir: Relationships with organisational aspects of the abattoir and animal characteristics”, Meat Science, 88, pp. 158-168.

Bretschneider, G. (2005) “Effects of age and method of castration on performance and stress response of beef male cattle: A review”, Livestock Production Science, 97, pp. 89-100.

Breuer, K.; Hemsworth, P. H.; Barnett, J. L.; Matthews, L. R. & Coleman, G. J. (2000) “Behavioural response to humans and the productivity of commercial dairy cows”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 66, pp. 273-288.

Broom, D. M. & Johnson, K. G. (1993) Stress and animal welfare, London: Chapman & Hall.

Chesterton, R. N. (1989) “Examination and control of lameness in dairy herds”, New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 37, pp. 133-134.

Conneman, G.; Crispell, C.; Grace, J.; Karszes, J.; Torbert, L. & Putnam, L. (1997) Dairy farm business summary: Intensive grazing farms, New York: Department of Agricultural, Resources, and Managerial Economics.

Cook, N. B.; Mentink, R. L.; Bennett, T. B. & Burgi, K. (2007) “The effect of heat stress and lameness on time budgets of lactating dairy cows”, Journal of Dairy Science, 90, pp. 1674-1682.

Daros, R. R.; Costa, J. H. C.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Hötzel, M. J. & Weary, D. M. (2014) “Separation from the dam causes negative judgement bias in dairy calves”, PLoS ONE, 9 (5) [accessed on 2 June 2014].

Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety (2017) Welfare of cattle on dairy farms, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union [accessed on 28 November 2017].

Eicher, S. D. (2001) “Transportation of cattle in the dairy industry: Current research and future directions”, Journal of Dairy Science, 84, suppl., pp. E19-E23.

European Commission, Scientific Veterinary Committee, Animal Welfare Section (1995) Report on the welfare of calves, Brussels: European Commission [accessed on 14 October 2013].

Fallon, R. J. (1992) Calf rearing, Dublin: Teagasc.

Flower, F. C. & Weary, D. M. (2003) “The effects of early separation on the dairy cow and calf”, Animal Welfare, 12, pp. 339-348.

Forkman, B.; Boissy, A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.-C.; Canali, E. & Jones, R. B. (2007) “A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses”, Physiology & Behavior, 92, pp. 340-374.

Fourichon, C.; Beaudeau, F.; Bareille, N. & Seegers, H. (2001) “Incidence of health disorders in dairy farming systems in western France”, Livestock Production Science, 68, pp. 157-170.

Friend, T. H. (1990) “Teaching animal welfare in the land grant universities”, Journal of Animal Science, 68, pp. 3462-3467.

Friend, T. H. & Dellmeier, G. R. (1988) “Common practices and problems related to artificially rearing calves: An ethological analysis”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 20, pp. 47-62.

Friend, T. H.; Dellmeier, G. R. & Gbur, E. E. (1985) “Comparison of four methods of calf confinement. I. Physiology”, Journal of Animal Science, 60, pp. 1095-1101 [accessed on 24 July 2013].

Graf, B. & Senn, M. (1999) “Behavioural and physiological responses of calves to dehorning by heat cauterization with or without local anaesthesia”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 62, pp. 153-171.

Haley, D.; Bailey, D. & Stookey, J. (2005) “The effects of weaning beef calves in two stages on their behavior and growth rate”, Journal of Animal Science, 83, pp. 2205- 2214.

Hemsworth, P. H. & Coleman, G. J. (1998) Human-livestock interactions: The stockperson and the productivity and welfare of intensively farmed animals, Wallingford: CAB International.

Hickey, M.; Drennan, M. & Earley, B. (2003) “The effect of abrupt weaning of suckler calves on the plasma concentrations of cortisol, catecholamines, leukocytes, acute-phase proteins and in vitro interferon-gamma production”, Journal of Animal Science, 81, pp. 2847-2855.

Hötzel, M.; Ungerfeld, R. & Quintans, G. (2010) “Behavioural responses of 6-month-old beef calves prevented from suckling: Influence of dam’s milk yield”, Animal Production Science, 50, pp. 909-915.

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Huxley, J. N.; Main, D. C. J.; Whay, H. R. Burke, J. & Roderick, S. (2004) “Animal welfare assessment benchmarking as a tool for health and welfare planning in organic dairy herds”, Veterinary Record, 155, pp. 237-239.

Jensen, M. B. (1999) “Effects of confinement on rebounds of locomotor behaviour of calves and heifers, and the spatial preferences of calves”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 62, pp. 43-56.

Krutzinna, C.; Boehncke, E. & Herrmann, H.-J. (1996) “Organic milk production in Germany”, Biological Agriculture & Horticulture: An International Journal for Sustainable Production Systems, 13, pp. 351-358.

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Mellor, D. & Stafford, K. (1999) “Assessing and minimising the distress caused by painful husbandry procedures in ruminants”, In Practice, 21, pp. 436-446.

Metz, J. H. M. & Groenestein, C. M. (eds.) (1991) New trends in veal calf production: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Veal Calf Production, Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.

Munksgaard, L.; Ingvartsen, K. L.; Pedersen, L. J. & Nielsen, V. K. M. (1999) “Deprivation of lying down affects behaviour and pituitary-adrenal axis responses in young bulls”, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A, Animal Science, 49, pp. 172-178.

Neave, H. W.; Daros, R. R.; Costa, J. H. C.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G. & Weary, D. M. (2013) “Pain and pessimism: Dairy calves exhibit negative judgement bias following hot-iron disbudding”, PLoS ONE, 8 (12) [accessed on 11 January 2014].

Rauw, W. M.; Kanis, E.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E. N. & Grommers, F. J. (1998) “Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: A review”, Livestock Production Science, 56, pp. 15-33.

Rollin, B. E. (1995) Farm animal welfare: Social ethical and bioethical issues, Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Rushen, J. (2001) “Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 223-234.

Rushen, J.; de Pasille, A. M.; Munksgaard, L. (1999) “Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield behavior and heart rate at milking”, Journal of Dairy Science, 82, pp. 720-727.

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Sandøe, P.; Christiansen, S. B. & Appleby, M. C. (2003) “Farm animal welfare: The interaction between ethical questions and animal welfare science”, Animal Welfare, 12, pp. 469-478.

Schreiner, D. A. & Ruegg, P. L. (2002) “Responses to tail docking in calves and heifers”, Journal of Dairy Science, 85, pp. 3287-3296.

St.-Pierre, N. R.; Cobanov, B. & Schnitkey, G. (2003) “Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries”, Journal of Dairy Science, 86, suppl., pp. E52-E77.

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Stull, C. & Reynolds, J. (2008) “Calf welfare”, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 24, pp. 191-203.

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Turner, S. P. & Lawrence, A. B. (2007) “Relationship between maternal defensive aggression, fear of handling and other maternal care traits in beef cows”, Livestock Science, 106, pp. 182-188.

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Van Reenen, C. G. & Blokhuis, H. J. (1993) “Investigating welfare of dairy calves involved in genetic modification: problems and perspectives”, Livestock Production Science, 36, pp. 81-90.

Veissier, I.; Caré, S. & Pomiès, D. (2013) “Suckling, weaning, and the development of oral behaviours in dairy calves”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 147, pp. 11-18.

Veissier, I.; Gesmier, V.; Le Neindre, P.; Gautier, J. Y. & Bertrand, G. (1994) “The effects of rearing in individual crates on subsequent social behaviour of veal calves”, Applied Animal Behavior Science, 41, pp. 199-210.

West, J. W. (2003) “Effects of heat-stress on production in dairy cattle”, Journal of Dairy Science, 86, pp. 2131-2144.

Whay, H. R. & Shearer, J. K. (2017) “The impact of lameness on welfare of the dairy cow”, Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 33, pp. 153-164.

Wiepkema, P. R.; Van Hellemond, K. K.; Roessingh, P. & Romberg, H. (1987) “Behaviour and abomasal damage in individual veal calves”, Applied Animal Behavior Science, 18, pp. 257-268.


Pig farming

Andresen, N. & Redbo, I. (1999) “Foraging behaviour of growing pigs on grassland in relation to stocking rate and feed crude protein level”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 62, pp. 183-197.

Arey, D. S. (1993) “The effect of bedding on the behaviour and welfare of pigs”, Animal Welfare, 2, pp. 235-246.

Barnett, J. L.; Hemsworth, P. H.; Cronin, G. M.; Jongman, E. C. & Hutson, G. D. (2001) “A review of the welfare issues for sows and piglets in relation to housing”, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 52, pp. 1-28.

Braund, J. P.; Edwards, S. A.; Riddoch, I. & Buckner, L. J. (1998) “Modification of foraging behaviour and pasture damage by dietary manipulation in outdoor sows”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 56, pp. 173-186.

Brent, G. (1986) Pig housing, Ipswich: Farming Press.

Candiani, D.; Salamano, G.; Mellia, E.; Doglione, L.; Bruno, R.; Toussaint, M. & Gruys, E. (2008) “A combination of behavioral and physiological indicators for assessing pig welfare on the farm”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 11, pp. 1-13.

Connor, M. L. (1993) “Evaluation of biotech housing for feeder pigs”, Manitoba Swine Update, 5, pp. 1-2.

Den Ouden, M.; Nijsing, J.; Dijkhuizen, A. & Huirne, R. (1997) “Economic optimization of pork production-marketing chains: I. Model input on animal welfare costs”, Livestock Production Science, 48, pp. 23-37.

Edwards, S. A. & Fraser, D. (1997) “Housing systems for farrowing and lactation”, Pig Journal, 37, pp. 77-89.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010) “Livestock primary”, FAOSTAT [accessed on 4 January 2017].

Fraser, D. (1984) “The role of behaviour in swine production: A review of research”, Applied Animal Ethology, 11, pp. 317-339.

Gjein, H. & Larssen, R. B. (1995) “Housing of pregnant sows in loose and confined systems – a field study. 1. Vulva and body lesions, culling reasons, and production results”, Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia, 36, pp. 185-200.

Harmon, J. D. & Lawrence, J. (1995) Open vs. enclosed swine finishing: Making the decision, Ames: Iowa State University.

Hemsworth, P. H. & Coleman, G. J. (1998) Human-livestock interactions: The stockperson and the productivity and welfare of intensively farmed animals, Wallingford: CAB International.

Honeyman, M. S. & Harmon, J. D. (2003) “Performance of finishing pigs in hoop structures and confinement during winter and summer”, Journal of Animal Science, 81, pp. 1663-1670.

Jonge, F. H.; de Bokkers, E. A. M.; Schouten, W. G. P. & Helmond, F. A. (1996) “Rearing piglets in a poor environment: Developmental aspects of social stress in pigs”, Physiology & Behavior, 60, pp. 389-396.

Martins, A. & Day, J. (2002) Optimising production systems for organic pig production (OF0169), King’s Lynn: ADAS Terrington [accessed on 12 April 2013]

McGlone, J. J.; Nicholson, R. I.; Hellman, J. M. & Herzog, D. N. (1993) “The development of pain in young pigs associated with castration and attempts to prevent castration induced behavioral changes”, Journal of Animal Science, 71, pp. 1441-1446 [accessed on 12 April 2013].

Rauw, W. M.; Kanis, E.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E. N. & Grommers, F. J. (1998) “Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: A review”, Livestock Production Science, 56, pp. 15-33.

Rushen, J. & Passillé, A. M. B. D. (1992) “The scientific assessment of the impact of housing on animal welfare: A critical review”, Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 72, pp. 721-743 [accessed on 30 September 2013].

Sainsbury, D. (1986) Farm animal welfare. Cattle, pigs and poultry, London: Collins.

Schneider, M. & Sharma, S. (2014) “China’s pork miracle?: Agribusiness and development in China’s pork industry”, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, February [accessed on 24 December 2016].

Schrøder-Petersen, D. L. & Simonsen, H. B. (2001) “Tail biting in pigs”, The Veterinary Journal, 162, pp. 196-210.

St. Pierre, N. R.; Cobanov, B. & Schnitkey, G. (2003) “Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries”, Journal of Dairy Science, 86, pp. E52-E77.

Thornton, K. (1990) Outdoor pig production, Ipswich: Farming Press.

Tubbs, R. C.; Hurd, H. S.; Dargatz, D. & Hill, G. (1993) “Preweaning morbidity and mortality in the United States swine herd”, Journal of Swine Health and Production, 1, pp. 21-28 [accessed on 14 July 2013].

Vaarst, M.; Roepstorff, A.; Feenstra, A.; Hogedal, P.; Larsen, V. A.; Lauritsen, H .B. & Hermansen, J. E. (1999) “Animal health and welfare aspects of organic pig production”, in Alföldi, T.; Lockeretz, W. & Niggli, U. (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International IFOAM Scientific Conference, 28-31 August 2000, Basel: VDF Hochschulverlag an der Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, p. 373.

Vaillancourt, J. P. & Tubbs, R. C. (1992) “Preweaning mortality”, The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice, 8, pp. 685-706.

Weber, R. & Zarate, A.V. (2000) Welfare of fattening pigs in different husbandry systems, Wageningen: Wageningen Academic.

Wemelsfelder, F. (2005) “Animal boredom: Understanding the tedium of confined lives”, in McMillan, F. (ed.) Mental health and well-being in animals, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 77-91.

Wemelsfelder, F.; Hunter, A. E.; Paul, E. S. & Lawrence, A. B. (2012) “Assessing pig body language: Agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists”, Journal of Animal Science, 90, pp. 3652-3665 [accessed on 16 April 2013].

White, R. C.; DeShazer, J. A.; Tressler, C. J.; Borches, G. M.; Davey, S.; Waninge A.; Parkhust, A. M.; Milanuk, M. J. & Clems, E. I. (1995) “Vocalization and physiological response of pigs during castration with and without anesthetic”, Journal of Animal Science, 73, pp. 381-386 [accessed on 21 January 2014].


Sheeps and goats

Anil, M. H.; Preston, J.;McKinstry, L.; Rodwayl, R. G.; Brown, S. N. (1996) “An assessment of stress caused in sheep by watching slaughter of other sheep”, Animal Welfare, 5, pp. 435-441.

Anzuino, K.; Bell, N. J.; Bazeley, K. & Nicol, C. J. (2010) “Assessment of welfare on 24 commercial UK dairy goat farms based on direct observations”, Veterinary Record, 16, pp. 774-780.

Cockram, M. S. (2004) “A review of behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to stressors to identify potential behavioural signs of distress”, Animal Welfare, 13, pp. 283-291.

Conington, J.; Collins, J. & Dwyer, C. (2010) “Selection for easier managed sheep”, Animal Welfare, 19, pp. 83-92.

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Diseases suffered in fish farms

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Diseases suffered by animals living on land farms

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The journey to the slaughterhouse

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