Animals used for clothing bibliography

Fur farms

Agriculture Division, Statistics Canada (2004) “Fur statistics”, Statistics Canada, 2 (1) [accessed on 10 September 2013].

Alderton, D. (1996) Rodents of the world, London: Blandford, p. 20.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture (2012) “Wildlife services’ 2007 annual tables”, Wildlife Damage Management [accessed on 11 September 2013].

Animal Equality (2010) Death inside gas chambers, [London]: Animal Equality [accessed on 23 September 2013].

Bakken, M. (1998) “The effect of an improved man–animal relationship on sex-ratio in litters and on growth and behaviour in cubs among farmed silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 56, pp. 309-317.

Braastad, B. O. (1987) “Abnormal behaviour in farmed silver fox vixens (Vulpes vulpes L.): Tail-biting and infanticide”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 17, pp. 376-377.

Broom, D. M. (1983) “Stereotypies as Animal Welfare Indicators”, in Smidt, D. (ed.) Indicators relevant to farm animal welfare: Current topics in veterinary medicine and animal science, vol. 23, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoffpp, pp. 81-87.

Broom, D. M. & Johnson, K. G. (2000) Stress and animal welfare, Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Burger, D. & Gorham, J. R. (1977) “Observation on the remarkable stability of transmissible mink encephalopathy virus”, Research in Veterinary Science, 22, pp. 131-132.

Clausen, T. N.; Olesen, C. R.; Hansen, O. & Wamberg, S. (1992) “Nursing sickness in lactating mink (Mustela vison). I. epidemiological and pathological observations”, Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 56, pp. 89-94.

Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade (CAFT) (2015) The reality of commercial rabbit farming in Europe, [Manchester]: Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade [accessed on 13 September 2013].

Cybulski, W.; Chałabis-Mazurek, A.; Jakubczak, A.; Jarosz, Ł.; Kostro, K.; Kursa, K. (2009) “Content of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the liver and kidneys of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to age and reproduction disorders”, Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puławy, 53, pp. 65-69 [accessed on 27 March 2013].

Dallaire, J. A.; Meagher, R. K.; Díez-León, M.; Garner, J. P. & Mason, G. J. (2011) “Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment”, Behavioral Brain Research, 224, pp. 213-222.

Drescher, B. & Schlender- Böbbis, I. (1996) “Etude pathologique de la pododermatite chez les lapins reproducteurs de souche lourde sur grillage”, World Rabbit Science, 4, pp. 143-148 [accessed on 28 February 2013].

Dunstone, N. (1993) The mink, London: T. & A. D. Poyser.

Enggaard Hansen, N.; Creutzberg A. & Simonsen H. B. (1991) “Euthanasia of mink (Mustela vison) by means of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N2)”, British Veterinary Journal, 47, pp. 140-146.

Hagen, K. W. & Gorham, J. R. (1972) “Dermatomycoses in fur animals: Chinchilla, ferret, mink and rabbit”, Veterinary medicine & small animal clinician, 67 (1), pp. 43-48.

Hansen, S. W.; Hansen, B. K. & Berg, P. (1994) “The effect of cage environment and ad libitum feeding on the circadian rhythm, behaviour and feed intake of farm mink”, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A — Animal Science, 44, pp. 120-127.

Hsieh-Yi; Yi-Chiao; Yu Fu; Maas, B. & Rissi, M. (2007) Dying for fur: A report on the fur industry in China”, [Basel]: EAST International/Swiss Animal Protection SAP [accessed on 5 September 2013].

International Fur Trade Federation (2003) The socio-economic impact of international fur farming, [London]: International Fur Trade Federation [accessed on 13 September 2013].

Jørgensen, G. (ed.) (1985) Mink production, Hilleroed: Scientifur.

Kleiman, D. G.; Thompson, K. V. & Baer, C. K. (eds.) (2009) Wild mammals in captivity , 2nd ed., Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Koivula, M.; Mäntysaari, E. A. & I. Strandén (2011) “New breeding value evaluation of fertility traits in Finnish mink”, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science, 61, pp. 1-6.

Lambooy, E.; Roelofs, J. A. & Van Voorst, N. (1985) “Euthanasia of mink with carbon monoxide”, Veterinary Record, 116, p. 416.

Larsson, C.; Fink, R.; Matthiesen, C. F.; Thomsen, P. D. & Tauson, A. H. (2012) “Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision”, Archives of Animal Nutrition, 66, pp. 237-255.

Malmkvist, J. & Hansen, S. W. (2001) “The welfare of farmed mink (Mustela vison) in relation to behavioural selection: A review”, Animal Welfare, 10, pp. 41-52.

Mason, G. J. (1991) “Stereotypies: A critical review”, Animal Behaviour, 41, pp. 1015-1037.

Mason, G. & Rushen, J. (ed.) (2008 [1993]) Stereotypic animal behaviour: Fundamentals and applications to welfare, 2nd ed., Wallingford: CABI.

Mason, G. J.; Cooper, J. & Clarebrough, C. (2001) “Frustrations of fur-farmed mink”, Nature, 410, pp. 35-36.

Meagher, R. K.; Campbell, D. L. M. & Mason, G. J. (2017) “Boredom-like states in mink and their behavioural correlates: A replicate study”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 197, pp. 112-119.

Moberg, G. P. & Mench, J. A. (eds.) (2000) The biology of animal stress: Basic principles and implications for animal welfare, Wallingford: CABI Pub.

Moe, R. O.; Bakken, M.; Kittilsen, S.; Kingsley-Smith, H. & Spruijt, B. M. (2006) “A note on reward-related behaviour and emotional expressions in farmed silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) – Basis for a novel tool to study animal welfare”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 101, pp. 362-368.

Møller, S. H.; Hansen, S. W. & Sørensen, J. T. (2003) “Assessing animal welfare in a strictly synchronous production system: the mink case”, Animal Welfare, 12, pp. 699-703.

National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) & Agricultural Statistics Board & United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2010) “Pelt production up 1 percent”, Mink, July 9 [accessed on 25 September 2013].

Nimon, J. & Broom, M. (1999) “The welfare of farmed mink (Mustela vison) in relation to housing and management: A review”, Animal Welfare, 8, pp. 205-228.

Prichard, W. D.; Hagen, K. W.; Gorham, J. R. & Stiles, F. C., Jr. (1971) “An epizootic of brucellosis in mink”, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 159, pp. 635-637.

Raj, A. B. M. & Gregory, N. G. (1995) “Welfare implications of gas stunning pigs 1: Determination of aversion to the initial inhalation of carbon dioxide”, Animal Welfare, 4, pp. 273-280.

Raj, M. & Mason, G. (1999) “Reaction of farmed mink (Mustela vison) to argon-induced hypoxia”, Veterinary Record, 145, pp. 736-737.

Rosell, J. M. (2005) “The suckling rabbit: Health, care, and survival: A field study in Spain and Portugal during 2003-2004”, in Daader, A. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th international conference on rabbit production in hot climates, Sharm el-Sheik (Egypt), February 24th-27th, pp. 1-9.

Stephenson, R.; Butler, P. J.; Dunstone, N. & Woakes, A. J. (1988) “Heart rate and gas exchange in freely diving American mink (Mustela vison)”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 134, pp. 435-442.


Animals captured for fur

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture (2008) “Wildlife Services’ 2007 Annual Tables”, Program Data Report [accessed on 27 July 2013].

Banci, V. & Proulx, G. (1999) “Resiliency of furbearers to trapping in Canada”, in Proulx, G. (ed.) Mammal trapping, Sherwood Park: Alpha Wildlife Research and Management, pp. 1-46.

Canada (2013 [1993]) Marine Mammal Regulations: SOR/93-56 [accessed on 22 February 2014].

Chalmers, G. A. & Barrett, M. W. (1982) “Capture myopathy”, in Noninfectious Diseases of Wildlife, Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Colleran, E.; Papouchis, C. M.; Hofve, J. C. & Fox, C. H. (2004) “The use of injury scales in the assessment of trap-related injuries”, in Fox, C. H. & Papouchis, C. M. (eds.) Cull of the wild: A contemporary analysis of wildlife trapping in the United States, Sacramento: Animal Protection Institute, pp. 55-59.

Daoust, P.-Y.; Crook, A.: Bollinger, T. K.; Campbell, K. G. & Wong, J. (2002) “Animal welfare and the harp seal hunt in Atlantic Canada”, Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43, pp. 687-694.

Engeman, R. M.; Krupa, H. W.; & Kern, J. (1997) “On the use of injury scores for judging the acceptability of restraining traps”, Journal of Wildlife Research, 2, pp. 124-127.

Englund, J. (1982) “A comparison of injuries to leg-hold trapped and foot snared red foxes”, Journal of Wildlife Management, 46, 1113-1117.

Fleming, P. J. S.; Allen, L. R.; Berghout, M. J.; Meek, P. D.; Pavlov, P. M.; Stevens, P.; Strong, K.; Thompson, J. A. & Thomson, P. C. (1998) “The performance of wild-canid traps in Australia: efficiency, selectivity and trap-related injuries”, Wildlife Research, 25, pp. 327-338.

Fowler, A. (ca. 2010) “Capture myopathy”, [accessed on 10 October 2013].

Fox, C. H. (2004) “The status of fur trapping: An historical overview. Chapter 1”, in Fox, C.H. & Papouchis, C.M. (eds.) Cull of the wild: A contemporary analysis of wildlife trapping in the United States, op. cit.

Gilbert, F. F. & Gofton, N. (1982) “Terminal dives in mink, muskrat and beaver”, Physiology & Behavior, 28, pp. 835-840.

Harris, S.; Soulsbury, C. & Iossa, G. (2007) Trapped by bad science: the myths behind the International Humane Trapping Standards, Brussels: International Fund for Animal Welfare.

Harrop, S. (1998) “The agreements on international trapping standards – background, critique and the texts”, Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, 1, pp. 387-394.

Hartup, B. K., Kollias, G. V. & Jacobsen, M. C.; Valentine, B. A. & Kimber, K. R. (1999) “Exertional myopathy in translocated river otters from New York”, Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 35, pp. 542-547.

Iossa, G.; Soulsbury, C.D. & Harris, S. (2007) “Mammal trapping: A review of animal welfare standards of killing and restraining traps”, Animal Welfare, 16, pp. 335-352.

Johnston, D. W.; Meisenheimer P. & Lavigne D. M. (2000) “An evaluation of management objectives for Canada’s commercial harp seal hunt, 1996-1998”, Conservation Biology, 14, pp. 729-737.

Kirkwood, J.K. (2005) Report of the Independent Working Group on Snares, London: Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, p. 8 [accessed on 5 November 2013].

Lavigne, D. M.; Perrin, W. F.; Wursig, B. & Thewissen, J. G. M. (eds.) (2009) Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 2nd ed., Burlington: Academic Press.

Leaper, R.; Lavigne, D. M.; Corkeron, P. & Johnston, D. W. (2010) “Towards a precautionary approach to managing Canada’s commercial harp seal hunt”, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67, pp. 316-320.

Leaper R. & Matthews, J. (2008) “Implications of uncertainty for Canada’s commercial hunt of harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus)”, Nature Proceedings [accessed on 28 July 2013].

Ludders, J. W.; Schmidt, R. H.; Dein, J. & Klein, P. N. (1999) “Drowning is not euthanasia”, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27, pp. 666-670.

Malouf A. & Sealing in Canada (1986) Report of the Royal Commission on Seals and the Sealing Industry in Canada, Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Centre.

Novak, M. (1979) “The new foot-snare live trap and the leg-hold trap – a comparison”, Ontario Fish & Wildlife Review, 18, pp. 11-22.

Novak M. (1981) “The foot-snare and leg-hold traps: A comparison”, Proceedings of the Management, 36, pp. 988-991.

Nutman, A. W.; Gregory, N. G. & Warburton, B. (1998) “A comparison of the effectiveness of three neck-hold killing traps in occluding carotid arteries in the neck of the brushtail possum”, New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 46, pp. 177-181.

Papouchis, C. M. (2004) “Trapping: A review of the scientific literature. Chapter 6”, in Fox, C.H. & Papouchis, C.M. (eds.) Cull of the wild: A contemporary analysis of wildlife trapping in the United States, op. cit.

Powell, R. A. & Proulx, G. (2003) “Trapping and marking terrestrial mammals for research: Integrating ethics, performance criteria, techniques, and common sense”, ILAR Journal, 44, pp. 259-276.

Proulx, G. (1999) “Review of current mammal trap technology in North America”, in Proulx, G. (ed.) Mammal trapping, Sherwood Park: Alpha Wildlife Research and Management, pp. 1-46.



Bonacic, C.; Macdonald, D. W. (2003) “The physiological impact of wool-harvesting procedures in vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna)”, Animal Welfare, 12, pp. 387-402.

Chapman, R. E.; Fell, L. R. & Shutt, D. A. (1994) “A comparison of stress in surgically and non-surgically mulesed sheep”, Australian Veterinary Journal, 71, pp. 243-247.

Cockram, M. S. (2004) “A review of behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to stressors to identify potential behavioural signs of distress”, Animal Welfare, 13, pp. 283-291.

Conington, J.; Collins, J. & Dwyer, C. (2010) “Selection for easier managed sheep”, Animal Welfare, 19 (1), pp. 83-92

Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) (1994) Report on the welfare of sheep, London: MAFF Publications [accessed on 14 April 2013].

Fitzpatrick, J.; Scott, M. & Nolan, A. (2006) “Assessment of pain and welfare in sheep”, Small Ruminant Research, 62, pp. 55-61.

Forkman, B.; Boissy, A.; Meunier-Salaün, M.-C.; Canali, E. & Jones, R. B. (2007) “A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses”, Physiology and Behavior, 92, pp. 340-374.

French, N. P.; Wall, R. & Morgan, K. L. (1994) “Lamb tail docking: A controlled field study of the effects of tail amputation on health and productivity”, Veterinary Record, 134, pp. 463-467.

Hargreaves, A. L. & Huston, G. D. (1990) “An evaluation of the contribution of isolation, up-ending and wool removal to the stress response to shearing”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 26 pp. 103-113.

Jongman, E. C.; Morris, J. P.; Barnett, J. L. & Hemsworth, P. H. (2000) “EEG changes in 4-week-old lambs in response to castration, tail docking, and mulesing”, Australian Veterinary Journal, 78, pp. 339-343.

Lee, C. & Fisher, A. (2007) “Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep”, Australian Veterinary Journal, 85, pp. 89-93.

National Agricultural Statistics Service (2010) “Sheep and goats death loss”, National Agricultural Statistics Service [accessed on 3 August 2013].

Parrott, R. F.; Lloyd, D. M. & Brown, D. (1999) “Transport stress and exercise hyperthermia recorded in sheep by radiotelemetry”, Animal Welfare, 8, pp. 27-34.

Phillips, C. J. C. (2009) “A review of mulesing and other methods to control flystrike (cutaneous myiasis) in sheep”, Animal Welfare, 18, pp. 113-121.

Rushen, J. (1986a) “Aversion of sheep to electro-immobilisation and mechanical restraint”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 15, p. 315.

Rushen, J. (1986b) “Aversion of sheep for handling treatments: Paired-choice studies”, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 16, p. 363.

Rushen, J. & Congdon, P. (1986) “Relative aversion of sheep to simulated shearing with and without electro-immobilisation”, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26, p. 535.

Rushen, J. & Congdon, P. (1987) “Electro-immobilisation of sheep may not reduce the aversiveness of a painful treatment”, Veterinary Record, 120, p. 37.

Scobie, D. R.; Bray, A. R.; O’Connell, D. (1999) “A breeding goal to improve the welfare of sheep”, Animal Welfare, 8, pp. 391-406.

Scobie, D. R.; Young, S. R. & O’Connell, D. (2005) “Skin wrinkles affect wool characteristics and the time taken to harvest wool from Merino and halfbred sheep”, New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 48, pp. 177-185.

Simmons, P. & Ekarius, C. (2001) Storey’s guide to raising sheep, North Adams: Storey.

Veissier, I.; Boissy, A.; Désiré, L. & Greiveldinger, L. (2009) “Animals’ emotions: Studies in sheep using appraisal theories”, Animal Welfare, 18, pp. 347-354.

Ward, M. P. & Farrell, R. (2003) “Sheep blowfly strike reduction using a synthetic lure system”, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 59, pp. 21-26.

Wardhaugh, K. G.; Mahon, R. J. & Bedo, D. (2001) “Factors affecting the incidence of flystrike in sheep: a description and analysis of data from three separate areas in eastern Australia”, Proceedings of the FRICS Conference, Launceston, June 2001 [accessed on 9 June 2013].

Watts, J. E. & Marchant, R. S. (1977) “Effects of diarrhoea, tail length and sex on incidence of breech strike in modified mulesed Merino sheep”, Australian Veterinary Journal, 53, pp. 118-123.

Wemelsfelder, F. & Farish, M. (2004) “Qualitative categories for the interpretation of sheep welfare: A review”, Animal Welfare, 13, pp. 261-268.

Winter, A. C. & Fitzpatrick, J. L. (2008) “Sheep welfare: Standards and practices”, in Aitken, I. D. (ed.) Diseases of sheep, 4th ed., Oxford: Blackwell.



Bartlett, T. (2004 [1986]) Ducks and geese: A guide to management, Ramsbury: Crowood.

Council of Europe (1999) Recommendation concerning Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and hybrids of Muscovy and domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), Strasbourg: Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals Kept for Farming Purposes [accessed on 2 April 2013].

Dean, W. & Sandhu T. (2006) “Domestic ducks”, Duck Research Laboratory [accessed on 27 February 2013].

Duncan, I. J. H. (2001) “Animal welfare issues in the poultry industry: Is there a lesson to be learned?”, Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 4, pp. 207-221.

EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (2010) “Scientific opinion on the practice or harvesting (collecting) feathers from live geese for down production”, EFSA Journal, 8, 1886 [accessed on 18 April 2014].

European Down and Feather Association (2009) Statement on the harvesting of feathers and down, Mainz: European Down and Feather Association [accessed on 15 April 2014].

Faure, J.M. & Raud, H. (1994) “Welfare of ducks in intensive units”, Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), 13, pp. 125-129.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013) “Livestock primary”, FAOSTAT [accessed on 19 February 2013].

Gentle, M. J. (1989) “Cutaneous sensory afferents recorded from the nervous intra-mandibularis of Gallus gallus var domesticus”, Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 164, pp. 763-774.

Gentle, M. J. (1992) “Pain in birds”, Animal Welfare, 1, pp. 235-247.

Gentle, M. J.; Hunter, L. N. (1989) “Physiological and behavioral responses associated with feather removal in Gallus gallus var domesticus”, Research in Veterinary Science, 50, pp. 95-101.

Gentle, M. J. & Tilston, V. L. (2000) “Nociceptors in the legs of poultry: Implications for potential pain in pre-slaughter shackling”, Animal Welfare, 9, pp. 227-236.

Gregory, N. G. & Wilkins, L. J. (1989) “Broken bones in the domestic fowl: handling and processing damage in end-of-lay battery hens”, British Poultry Science, 30, pp. 555-562.

Grow, O. (1972) Modern waterfowl management and breeding guide, Augusta: American Bantam Association.

Henderson, J. V.; Nicol, C. J.; Lines, J.A.; White, R. P. & Wathes, C. M. (2001) “Behaviour of domestic ducks exposed to mobile predator stimuli. 1. Flock responses”, British Poultry Science, 42, pp. 433-438.

International Down and Feather Laboratory and Institute (2009) Finding the truth about “live-plucking” and “harvesting”, Salt Lake City: International Down and Feather Laboratory and Institute [accessed on 22 May 2013].

Kotrschal, K.; Scheiber, I. B. R. & Hirschenhauser, K. (2010) “Individual performance in complex social systems: The greylag goose example”, in Kappeler, P. (ed.) Animal behaviour: Evolution and mechanisms, Berlin: Springer Verlag, pp. 121-148.

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Necker, R. & Reiner, B. (1980) “Temperature-sensitive mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and heat nociceptors in the skin of pigeons feather”, Journal of Comparative Physiology, 135, pp. 201-207.

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Akai, H.; Kiguchi, K.; Kobari, Y. & Shibukawa, A. (1981) “Practical utilization of juvenoids for increasing silk production”, Scientific Papers of the Institute of Organic Physical Chemistry, 22, pp. 781-792.

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