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Animal experimentation


Animal testing for the production of cosmetics is one of the fields in which animals are used. It involves the deaths of millions of animals in different countries who are harmed in many different ways in the process. Rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and rats are commonly used for animal testing. They are burned, mutilated, poisoned and gassed, and if they manage to survive the process,... Read more

White mouse being injected in a laboratory

Nonhuman animals are used in laboratories for a number of purposes. Examples of animal experimentation include product testing, use of animals as research models and as educational tools. Within each of these categories, there are also many different purposes for which they are used. For instance, some are used as tools for military or biomedical research; some to test cosmetics... Read more


Many animals are killed for environmental research in the name of conservation and environmental safety. Animals may die in experiments that are carried out in the field. The “field” refers to the ecosystem being studied, which is actually the home of the animals living in it. A large number of animals are also killed in laboratories where chemicals are tested to determine... Read more


Biomedical experimentation dates back many years. Early experimentation included blood transfusions, vivisection (surgical procedures performed on conscious, living animals), and dissection of apes, dogs, and pigs. In present times testing on nonhuman animals is obligatory in codes of ethics for biomedical research. According to the Nuremberg Code adopted in 1947, any experiments... Read more

Black rat used in an experiment

New materials that are expected to or may potentially come into contact with human beings are tested to examine their biocompatibility. Biocompatibility tests measure the way the material interacts with biological systems to ensure that their use will not cause harm to humans. This practice straddles the line between the concerns of industry, biomedical research, and biomaterials... Read more


One of the purposes for which animals are used as mere tools is military research. The extent to which military research is done on nonhuman animals is not known since it is very difficult to obtain information on this topic. The United States Department of Agriculture, which is in charge of enforcing the Animal Welfare Act, does not have the authority to inspect labs that belong... Read more


The vast majority of animals used in the field of education are used for dissections. There is not data available for every country, but in the United States, it has been estimated that nearly six million vertebrates are used for this purpose each year, of which half are frogs. The use of frogs for dissection has been common for decades in biology classes in secondary education.... Read more


Animals are used in university teaching in a wide range of disciplines, such as Veterinary Science, Medicine, Biology, Pharmacy, and Psychology. Some of the subjects in which animals are used include anatomy, anesthesiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, zoology, surgery, neurosurgery, and urology. The animals most commonly used are dogs, mice, rats, cats, rabbits, and... Read more


There are a variety of methods of experimentation which do not require the use of animals. There are currently a number of databases of such methods for a wide array of purposes. This includes education and cosmetics testing, but also basic scientific and biomedical research. Some of them use mathematical and computer models. These in silico techniques (computer-based methods such... Read more


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