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Ethics and animals

Speciesism

Arguments against speciesism
Defenses of speciesism
The argument from species overlap
The argument from relevance
The argument from impartiality
Begging the question
Moral intuitions and biases
Speciesism FAQ

Ethical theories and nonhuman animals

Different ethical theories
Egalitarianism
Utilitarianism
Negative consequentialism
Rights theories: The general approach
Rights theories: Different positions
Contractarianism
Virtue and care ethics

Animal interests

Interest in not suffering
Interest in living
The weight of animals’ interests

 

Sentience

Animal sentience

What is sentience
The problem of consciousness
The idea that only humans are sentient
Criteria for recognizing sentience
What beings are conscious
What beings are not conscious
Indicators of animal suffering
Consciousness and self-consciousness
Consciousness and cognition

The relevance of sentience

Why we should consider sentient beings, rather than all living beings
Why we should consider individuals, rather than ecosystems
Why we should consider individuals, rather than species
The argument from relevance

 

Animal exploitation

Animals used for food

Fishing
Fish farming
Chickens and hens
Pig farms
Cows
Sheeps and goats
Exploitation of bees by humans
Diseases in land farms
Diseases in fish farms
Branding
The journey to the slaughterhouse
The slaughter of animals

Animal used for clothing

Leather
Cows
Sheeps and goats
Pig factories
Fur farms
Animals captured for their fur
Wool
Feathers
Silk

Animal used for entertainment

Sport fishing
Hunting
Animals in circuses and other shows
Bullfighting and other entertainment using bulls

Animal experimentation

Environmental research
Cosmetic and household products testing
Military experimentation
Biomedical experimentation
Experimentation with new materials
Animals used in primary and secondary education
Animals used in higher education
Research methods that do not involve the use of nonhuman animals
Companies that test on animals
Companies that do not test on animals

Animals kept as companions or for leisure

Dogs, cats and other animals kept as pets or companions
Fishes and birds kept for leisure

Animals as workers and tools

Animals used as workers
Military use of animals
Animal experimentation

Veganism

Veganism FAQ
Why be vegan?
Responses to questions and objections to veganism
Information about going vegan
Veganism and antispeciesism
Speciesism
Vegan tips
Meeting challenges as a transitioning vegan
Personalize your vegan diet
Supportive vegan communities
Vegan nutrition
Vitamins
Minerals
Proteins
Lipids
Special cases
Vegan food for animals

Animals in Nature

The situation of animals in the wild

Malnutrition and thirst in wild animals
Diseases in nature
Physical injuries in wild animals
Weather conditions and nonhuman animals
Animals in natural disasters
Antagonism in nature
Psychological stress in wild animals

Why wild animal suffering matters

Population dynamics and animal suffering
Evolutionary reasons why suffering prevails in nature
Can animals in the wild be harmed in the same ways as domesticated animals and humans?

Helping animals in the wild

Rescuing trapped animals
Vaccinating and healing injured and sick animals
Helping animals in fires and natural disasters
Helping hungry and thirsty animals
Caring for orphaned animals
Working for a future with fewer harms suffered by animals in the wild

Defending animals

What you can do

Helping animals in the wild

Veganism

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